Review Exam #2
What is a society?
Describe the 6 different societies that have evolved over time.
—people who share a culture and a territory
6 different societies
Hunting and gathering
– most egalitarian society “headed” by a shaman
Pastoral (herding) and horticultural (cultivating)
– division of labor developed
from food production and other goods production, resulting in social inequality, develop of
: if someone who can make jewelry, he / she will have higher social class.
– invention of the plow resulted in the Agricultural Revolution, and
more social inequality developed (through taxes, control of food production)
This was also when women became subject to males!
– fuel machine technology resulted in the Industrial Revolution, and
social inequality grew across gender, race/ethnicity, and social class
information have increased in
importance, making higher education ever more critical in sustaining a good standard of
– altering of genetic structures of plants and animals to produce food,
medicine, and materials (e.g., cloning, organic food, other innovative ideas), which also
make higher education VERY critical
What is a group?
Describe the 7 types of groups developed in human societies.
—people who have something in common and who believe that what they have in
common is significant; also called a social group
7 types of groups
– share same space but do not belong to one another (e.g., shoppers in
Ex: drivers/ motorists-355, public transportation, visitors, movie theater patrons, customers
In any venue
– similar characteristics but may not know each other (e.g., college
Ex: religious group, hospital patients→ aggregate, stadium patrons: Redskins vs. cowboys
– intimate, long-term relationships (e.g., family, friends, hate
– larger, less intimate relationships (e.g., classmates, co-
Ex: ex: discrimination, tolerance to religionist groups
– loyalty (e.g., family, friends, co-workers)
– antagonism (e.g., terrorists, scam artists)
/ role modeling – people we use as standards to evaluate
ourselves (e.g., college graduates, professionals)
– people who are linked to one another like a “spider web” (e.g.,
clique, family, friends, friends of friends)