What is gender stratification?
– males’ and females’ unequal access to property, power, and prestige
Compare and contrast the following concepts by knowing the definitions and examples:
Sex vs. gender
between males and females (e.g., organs, hormones)
behaviors/attitudes for males and females (i.e.,
masculinity vs. femininity)
Patriarchy vs. matriarchy
a social system in which men dominate over women in social
institutions such as gov’t, education, business, etc. (e.g., China, India, England)
a social system in which women dominate over men in social
institutions (e.g., small human communities, honeybees)
Glass ceiling vs. glass escalator/elevator
– invisible barrier for women in getting promoted
Refer to article on Hillary Rodham Clinton
– invisible accelerator for men in traditionally female jobs (e.g.,
Mommy track vs. fast track
– women who take time off to care for children and lose opportunity
for advancement in the workplace
– men who get penalized for having a working wife (instead of a
How did females become a minority group?
Discuss the origins of patriarchy.
The origin of discrimination against females is lost in history, but the primary theory of how
females became a minority group in their own societies focuses on the physical limitations
imposed by childbirth.
The major theory of the origin of patriarchy—men dominating society—points to social
consequences of human reproduction. Women—produce many children because of the short
life—take care of the children (carry, feed)—physically encumbered. Men—dominant—
hunt, deal with relationship with others, control the weapons and the resources.
What is feminism?
What are the 3 waves of the U.S. feminist movement?
—the philosophy that men and women should be politically, economically, and
socially equal; organized activities on behalf of this principle
– early 1900s – demand for political change
: violence, hostility, arrests
Amendment to U.S. Constitution (1920)
granted women right to vote
– 1960s to 1980s – demand for equal education and job opportunities
: Equal Pay Act of 1963 and Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964
– 1990s to present – search for inequalities across women in the: