Unformatted text preview: Antimicrobials: Antiviral Agents
Virus: Nucleic Acid (DNA/RNA) surrounded by a protein coat (capsid) How viruses work Attaches to host cell Injects nucleic acid Uses host cell processes to replicate nucleic acid Host cell releases more viruses Examples of Viral Infections Small Pox, Chicken Pox, Shingles, Herpes Gladiatorum Hepatitis, HIV Warts Measles, Mumps Rabies Common Cold, Influenza, Mononucleosis How antiviral agents work Interfere with viral DNA/RNA synthesis Many of the drugs' structures are similar to those of DNA/RNA Virus can become resistant to the drug Antiviral agents do not destroy the virus itself, they minimize the duration of symptoms Dosing Dose should be started at onset of symptoms, or within 48 hours Some are taken for prophylactic purposes, these are lower doses than when an outbreak occurs Antiherpetic drugs Acyclovir/Zivromax 800mg qid 400mg bid AE: GI upset, HA Valacyclovir/Valtrex 2000mg bid 1000mg qd AE: HA, GI upset, depression, dizziness Famciclovir/Famvir 500mg tid 250mg bid AE: GI upset, dizziness, fatigue, fever Antiinfluenza Drugs Oseltamivir/Tamiflu Zanamivir/Relenza 75mg bid, 75mg qd AE: allergic reactions, delirium, N/V Oral Inhalation 10mg (2 inhalations) bid, 10mg qd AE: allergic reactions, bronchospasm, HA, dizziness, N/V/D, E/N/T infection Vaccines Influenza, measles, mumps, chicken pox Using an inactive virus to trick the body in creating antibodies for that particular virus Causes of Rhinitis
Bacterial Fever Onset Signs/ Symptoms Fever Rapid HA, Congest., ST, 1 predominant symptom Rhinovirus Mild/No Gradual Sneezing, congestion, HA, PND, no predominant symptom Clear/white Influenza Fever Fast Sneeze, cough, chest congestion, ST, nasal congestion, PND Allergic No Allergen Seasonal, sneeze, cough, congestion, watery eyes, PND Clear (inside nostril may appear blue) Not common Antihistimine Intranasal Decongestant Corticosteroid Remove allergen Mono Fever Gradual ST, HA, N/V, Lymphadenopathy, Splenomegaly Exudate Dark yellow/ green Yes Antibiotic Clear/white Clear/white Malaise/ Myalgia Pharm. Tx Not common Decongestant Antihistimine Antitussive Expectorant Antipyretic Fluids, rest, saline spray, humidity Yes Relenza Tamiflu Yes NSAIDs Decongestants Analgesics Nonpharm. Tx N/A Same as rhinovirus Same as rhinovirus Decongestants Constrict blood vessels in the nasal passage to decrease edema Sudafed, Afrin, Pseudoephedrine, Phenylephrine AE tachycardia, increased BP, insomnia Intranasal decongestants have higher risk of physical dependence (rebound congestion) Antitussives Suppress coughing (at the CNS level) Potential for abuse Depressant effects (ALEXIS) Cough Drops antitussive or local anesthetics Codeine, Hydrocodone, Dextromethorphan Expectorant Mucus removal from chest Robitussin DM, Sudafed Cold & cough liquid Caps, Guaifenesin OTC dosage is uncertain of actual therapeutic effects Counterproductive with antihistamines AE: GI distress Nonpharm tx may be just as beneficial Decreases viscosity of mucus Antihistamines Block histamine receptors rhinorrhea, itchy/watery eyes, sneezing Diphenhydramine/Benedryl, Promethazine/Phenergan, Loratadine/Claritin, Fexofenadine/Allegra Reduces mucus production Caution with lower resp. tract diseases AE: Sedation, dizziness, tachycardia, blurred vision, "anticholinergic effects" (parasympathetic nervous system) Not a decongestant though! Antipyretics Fever reducers NSAIDs & APAP You should already know these AE: For Next Class
Article Review #2 Due ...
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- Spring '08
- Antiviral agents, Common cold, tract diseases AE