Chem 162-2010 homework 10th week

Chem 162-2010 homework 10th week - Chem 162-2010 Hill &...

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th Week Chapter 22. 73. A tetrahedral complex with Br - , Cl - , I - , and CO 3 2- ligands can exist as optical isomers but not as geometric isomers. Explain. These can exist as optical isomers because a non-superimposable mirror image can be made. However, since geometric isomers must have two of the same ligands on the same side of the transition metal, and two of the same ligands diagonally opposite, but we are limited because this molecule doesn’t contain two of the same ligands, then geometric isomers are impossible in this molecule. 93. Four structures are shown in the accompanying sketch. Indicate whether any of these structures are identical, whether any are geometric isomers, and whether any are optical isomers. This exercise is virtually impossible to do without ball and stick molecular models. (a) and (c) are identical. (b and d) are enantiomers; (a) (trans) and (b or d) (cis) are geometric isomers. Chapter 17 Disorder, Entropy, and Spontaneous Change 19. For each of the following reactions, indicate whether you would expect the entropy of the system to increase or decrease. If you cannot tell just by inspecting the equation, explain why. (a) CH 3 OH(l) → CH 3 OH(g) Increase; going from a liquid to a gas increases entropy. (b) N 2 O 4 (g) → 2NO 2 (g) Increase; going from one mole of a gas to two moles of gas increases entropy. (c) CO(g) + H 2 O(g) → CO 2 (g) + H 2 (g) No change; going from two moles of gas to two moles of gas results in no change in entropy. Also, one molecule of gas becomes larger (CO → CO 2 ), while the other becomes smaller (H 2 O → H 2 ) cancels out the effect of increasing the size of the molecules. (d) 2KClO 3 (s) → 2KCl(s) + 3 O 2 (g) Increase; 3 moles of gas form. (e) CH 3 COOH(l) → CH 3 COOH(s) Decrease; going from a liquid to a solid decreases the entropy. (f) N 2 (g) + O 2 (g) → 2 NO(g) No change; going from two moles of gas to two moles of gas is no change in entropy. (g) N 2 H 4 (l) → N 2 (g) + 2H 2 (g) Increase; forming three moles of gas. (h) 2NH 3 (g) + H 2 SO 4 (aq) → (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 (aq) Decrease; going from one mole of gas to zero moles of gas. 21. In the manner used to describe Figure 17.3, describe the situation if the two liquids are water and octane (C 8 H 18 , a component of gasoline). That is, what would you expect to find for the final condition of the mixture? Explain. I would expect there to be some mixing of the water and octane, due to an increase in entropy. However, due to the very unfavorable enthalpy of solution, I would expect the mixing to be very minimal. 23. Three possible completions of a statement are given. Explain what is wrong with each one, and then complete the statement correctly. For a process to occur spontaneously, (a) the entropy of the system must increase. 1
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Chem 162-2010 homework 10th week - Chem 162-2010 Hill &...

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