Chem 162-2011 Final exam review from 2010 final exam-1

Chem 162-2011 Final exam review from 2010 final exam-1 -...

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Chem 162-2011 Final exam review from 2010 final exam 1 Chem 162-2011 4/29 Review for Final Exam – Review of 2010 final exam Dr. Ed Tavss CHAPTER 15 p H [ H + ] 14 Basic 1x10 -14 H 2 O + H 2 O H 3 O + + OH - K w = 1x10 -14 7 Neutral (e.g. H 2 O) 1x10 -7 K w = [H + ][OH - ] = 1 x 10 -14 pH + pOH = 14 K w = K a x K cb = K ca x K b = 1 x 10 -14 * *a & b = acid and base; ca & cb = conjugate acid and conjugate base pK a + pK b = 14 0 Acidic 1x10 o pH units of 1 to 13 is what is commonly used, but pH’s as low as -1 or as high as 15 are possible. No acids in existence for <-1 or bases for >+15. pH = -log[H + ] p H [ H + ] [H + ] = 10 -pH pOH = -log[OH - ] [OH - ] = 10 -pOH pOH [OH - ] Henderson-Hasselbalch equation: pH = pK a + log([B]/[A]) or pOH = pK base + log([Acid]/[Base]) where acid = acid or conjugate acid, and base = base or conjugate base. At equal conc. of conj. base and acid, pH = pK a of a buffer [H + ] = K a = 10 -pH pH + pOH = 14 pH + pOH = 14 K w = [H + ][OH - ] = 1 x 10 -14 w pOH = -log[OH - ] [OH - ] = 10 -pOH pH = -log[H + ] [H + ] = 10 -pH
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Chem 162-2011 Final exam review from 2010 final exam 2 SIX STRONG ACIDS ET: Discuss strong acids and strong bases and the strengths of their conjugate bases and acids; practice both. V e r y w e a k b a s e (i.e., not a base; K a Acid s p e c t a t o r i o n ) * * ~10 6 HCl + H 2 O H 3 O + + Cl - ~10 8 HBr + H 2 O H 3 O + + Br - ~10 9 HI + H 2 O H 3 O + + I - H 2 SO 4 + H 2 O H 3 O + + HSO 4 -*** HNO 3 + H 2 O H 3 O + + NO 3 - HClO 4 + H 2 O H 3 O + + ClO 4 - ( H C l O 3 + H 2 O H 3 O + + ClO 3 - )* *Strong, but not common, acid. Generally not considered as a strong acid. **These conjugate bases are known as “nominal bases”, i.e., a base by definition, but effectively not a base. ***Although HSO 4- is effectively not a base, it is effective as an acid. HSO 4 - + H 2 O H 3 O + + SO 4 2- All other acids are weak acids, e.g., HA (acetic acid), H 2 SO 3 , RNH 3 + , BF 3 Arrhenius acid: Anything that provides a proton, e.g., HA, H 2 SO 3 , RNH 3 + BL Acid: Anything tending to give up a proton, e.g., HA, H 2 SO 3 , RNH 3 + (Lewis Acid: Anything tending to react with an electron pair, e.g., BF 3 ) STRONG BASES (Most Group 1A and 2A hydroxides [not HOH]) e.g. V e r y w e a k a c i d (i.e., not an acid; B a s e s p e c t a t o r i o n ) LiOH OH - + Li + NaOH OH - + Na + Mg(OH) 2 2OH - + Mg 2+ Ba(OH) 2 2 O H - + Ba 2+ All other bases are weak bases, e.g., RNH 2 , CO 3 2- Arrhenius Base: Anything that provides an OH - group, e.g., NaOH BL Base: Anything that tends to react with a proton, e.g., NaOH, RNH 2 , CO 3 2- Lewis Base: Anything that has available non-bonding electrons, e.g., NaOH, RNH 2 , CO 3 2-
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Chem 162-2011 Final exam review from 2010 final exam 3
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Chem 162-2011 Final exam review from 2010 final exam 4 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STRUCTURE AND STRENGTH OF ACID, H-Z ET: Impossible to understand this topic based on H&P’s discussion Let Z = atom which the H is attached to, which is O for oxyacids, or F, Cl, S, etc. for binary acids. Strength of acid is determined completely by [homolytic] strength of H-Z bond. (If the bond is weak, the acid is strong; if the bond is strong, the acid is weak.*) *Bond strength correlates inversely with bond polarity. That is, the weaker the bond, the more polar the bond is. Some argue that it is the H-Z bond weakening, not the increased bond polarity,
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This document was uploaded on 11/02/2011 for the course GEN CHEM 162 at Rutgers.

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Chem 162-2011 Final exam review from 2010 final exam-1 -...

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