Chem 162-2011 Lecture 14

Chem 162-2011 Lecture 14 - CHEMISTRY 162-2011 LECTURE 14...

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CHEMISTRY 162-2011 LECTURE 14 ANNOUNCEMENTS E-MAIL ATTENDANCE Sign in QUIZ MISCELLANEOUS EXAM CHEM162-2011 LECTURE 14 1
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PLAN FOR TODAY : EQUILIBRIA IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS: SLIGHTLY SOLUBLE SALTS AND COMPLEX IONS 16.1-16.4 The Solubility Product Constant, K sp The Relationship Between K sp and Molar Solubility The Common Ion Effect in Solubility Equilibria Will precipitation occur? Is it complete? CHEM162-2011 LECTURE 14 2
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PRECIPITATION REACTIONS (HEAVY METAL IONS FORMING PRECIPITATES) 1A 2A 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 8A He Li + Be B C N O F Ne Na + Mg 3B 4B 5B 6B 7B 8B 8B 8B 1B 2B Al Si P S 2- Cl - Ar K + Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br - Kr Rb + Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Te Ru Rh Pd Ag + ? Cd In Sn Sb Te I - Xe Cs + Ba 2+ La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg 2 2+ Tl Pb 2+ Bi Po At - Rn CHEM162-2011 LECTURE 14 3
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PRECIPITATION REACTIONS Concept: Soluble salts: All group IA metal ions and NH 4 + All nitrates (NO 3 - ), acetates (CH 3 CO 2 - ), perchlorates (ClO 4 - ) All Cl - , Br - , I - * (except Ag + , Pb 2+ , Hg 2 2+ ) All IO 3 - and IO 4 - (except Pb 2+ , Hg 2 2+ , Ba 2+ ) All SO 4 2- (except Pb 2+ , Hg 2 2+ , Ba 2+ , Ca 2+ ) *Note absence of F - Insoluble salts: Ag + , Pb 2+ , Hg 2 2+ , Ba 2+ Hydroxides (OH - ) Sulfides (S 2- ) Carbonates (CO 3 2- ) Chromates (CrO 4 2- ) Phosphates (PO 4 3- ) CHEM162-2011 LECTURE 14 4 HIGH PRIORITY LOW PRIORITY
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Equilibria between slightly soluble salts and their ions in solution. Can really be called insoluble salts. Solubility of BaSO 4 only 0.000246g/100g H 2 O Ksp’s all <1 Interionic attractions, such as ion pairs, complicate equilibrium relationships unless ion concentrations are quite low. Consequently, we ordinarily use the solubility product concept only for slightly soluble ionic solutes. (At high concentration of solute, some of the solute is tied up as ion pairs, and some as free ions. The total of the ion pairs and free ions is referred to as the stoichiometric concentration, such as what would be used for titration calculations. At low concentrations, where there are only free ions, this free ion concentration is referred to as activity . In a sense, there are two concentrations of ions, the stoichiometric concentration and the activity. K sp is based on activity, the effective concentrations of ions regarding solubility.) CHEM162-2011 LECTURE 14 5
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Solubility Product Constants Pure liquids and pure solids don’t appear in equilibrium constant expressions. Ksp is the product of the concentrations of the ions involved in the solubility equilibrium, each raised to a power equal to the stoichiometeric coefficient of that ion in the chemical equation for the equilibrium. A(aq) 3B(aq) + 2C(aq) ([B] 3 [C] 2 )/[A] = K sp Write the equilibrium equations and equilibrium constant expressions for (a) iron(III) phosphate and (b) chromium(III) hydroxide. (a)
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Chem 162-2011 Lecture 14 - CHEMISTRY 162-2011 LECTURE 14...

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