Chem 161-2009 Chapter 9-Some Chemical Bonds practice problems

Chem 161-2009 Chapter 9-Some Chemical Bonds practice problems

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21 Chapter 9 – Chemical Bonds Electronegativity, bond polarity and dipole moments Which of the following polar bonds have the δ on the C atom? I. C—F II. C—Li III. C—Mg IV. C—O A. I and III B. I and IV C . II and III D. I, II, III, and IV E. II and IV Compare the electronegativity differences, with greatest electronegativity on the upper right-hand side of the periodic table, and lowest electronegativity on the lower left-hand side of the periodic table. The more electronegative atom will have the greater negative charge. δ+ δ- δ- δ+ δ- δ+ δ+ δ- C― F C― Li C ― Mg C― O C HILL & PETRUCCI CHAPTER 9 – CHEMICAL BONDS BOND POLARITY AND DIPOLE MOMENTS 23. Which one of the following compounds has the most ionic character? A. AlCl 3 B. BeCl 2 C . CsF D. AgI E. BF 3 The one with the most ionic character is the one which is the most polar, that is, the one with the greatest difference in electronegativity. The most electronegative atoms are in the upper right-hand corner of the periodic table; the most electropositive atoms are in the lower left-hand corner of the periodic table. Since Cs is in the lower left-hand corner of the periodic table, and F is in the upper right-hand corner of the periodic table, then CsF would be expected to have the most ionic character. 1
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HILL & PETRUCCI CHAPTER 9 – CHEMICAL BONDS BOND POLARITY AND DIPOLE MOMENTS 16. Rank the following bonds in order of increasing polarity. (Least polar bond first, most polar bond last). I. F - O II. F - P III. F - S IV. F - F A. IV < II < III < I B. II < III < I < IV C. III < II < I < IV D. I < II < IV < III E . IV < I < III < II The polarity corresponds to the differences in electronegativity of the atoms. The most electronegative atoms are in the upper right-hand corner of the periodic table; the most electropositive atoms are in the lower left-hand corner of the periodic table. F-F < F-O < F-S < F-P That is, F-F is the least polar, and F-P is the most polar. If we had the benefit of the Linus Pauling table of electronegativities, we would come to the same conclusion: F = 4.0 O = 3.5 S = 2.5 P = 2.1 Therefore, F-F polarity = 4.0 – 4.0 = 0 F-O polarity = 4.0 – 3.5 = 0.5 F-S polarity = 4.0 – 2.5 = 1.5 F-P polarity = 4.0 – 2.1 = 1.9 2
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12. Chapter 8: Bonding: General Concepts Electronegativity, bond polarity and dipole moments Which compounds contain predominantly ionic bonds? I. PCl 3 II. CsF III. BrCl IV. Ca 2 O A. I, II, III and IV. B. I and IV. C. II and III. D. I, III and IV. E . II and IV. Ionic bonds are between elements that are far apart in electronegativity, hence, between metals and non-metals. Only Cs and Ca are metals. 24. Chapter 8: Bonding: General Concepts Electronegativity, bond polarity and dipole moments Which one of the following is not true about electronegativity? A. Electronegativity measures an atom’s ability to attract electrons in a covalent bond.
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Chem 161-2009 Chapter 9-Some Chemical Bonds practice problems

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