Chem 161-2009 Homework 10th week

Chem 161-2009 Homework 10th week - Chem 161-2009 10th Week...

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Chem 161-2009 homework 10 th week 1 Chem 161-2009 10 th Week Hill & Petrucci Homework Problems Chapter 8 problems: 3,21,25,27,31,37,75 Chapter 8 problems: 41,43,45,49,51,55,57,61,63,65 Chapter 8 Self-Assessment Questions 3. According to Hund’s rule which of the following represents the correct electron configuration for the carbon atom? 1s 2s 2p or Hund’s rule: Electrons occupy subshell orbitals singly, with parallel spins, before doubly. The top electron configuration violates Hund’s rule. It is higher energy than the lower one, which isn’t in violation of Hund’s rule. The Rules for Electron Configurations 21. Explain why the following orbital diagrams are not possible for a ground-state electron configuration. (a) 1s 2s 2p (b) 1s 2s 2p (c) 1s 2s 2p (a) In violation of the Pauli Exclusion Principle: Pauli Exclusion Principle: No two electrons in an atom may have all four quantum numbers alike. Therefore, there may be no more than two electrons in an orbital, and these electrons must have opposing spins. Two electrons with the same spins are high energy. (b) In violation of the Pauli Exclusion Principle: Pauli Exclusion Principle: No two electrons in an atom may have all four quantum numbers alike. Therefore, there may be no more than two electrons in an orbital, and these electrons must have opposing spins. Two electrons with the same spins are high energy. (c) In violation of Hund’s rule: Electrons occupy subshell orbitals singly, with parallel spins, before doubly. ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↑ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓↑ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓
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2 25. What principle(s) or rule(s) does each of the following electron configurations violate? (a) 1s 2 2s 6 3s 2 (b) 1s 2 2s 2 2p 7 3s 1 (c) 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 2d 3 (a) Violates the Pauli Exclusion Principle. Since there is only one 2s orbital, it can only contain 2 electrons, not 6. Also, the 2p orbitals should contain electrons, rather than the 3s orbital. (b) Violates the Pauli Exclusion Principle. Since there are only three 2p orbitals, then the maximum number of electrons they contain must be 6, not 7. (c) Violates quantum mechanical principles. Since the “l” rule is 0 to n-1, and n = 2 for the valence shell, then “l” can only be 0 and 1, which is equivalent to s and p. That is, there is no 2d shell. Electron Configurations: The Aufbau Principle 27. Using spdf notation, write the ground-state electron configuration of (a) Mg, (b) F, (c) O, (d) Be, (e) P, (f) Si, (g) C, (h) K, and (i) Sc. 12 Mg = 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 9 F = 1s 2 2s 2 2p 5 8 O = 1s 2 2s 2 2p 4 4 Be = 1s 2 2s 2 15 P = 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 3 14 Si = 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 2 6 C = 1s 2 2s 2 2p 2 19 K = 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 1 21 Sc = 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 1 31. Give an orbital diagram for the ground-state electron configuration of (a) N, (b) B, (c) Si, (d) Ca, (e) Cl, and (f) Sc.
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Chem 161-2009 Homework 10th week - Chem 161-2009 10th Week...

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