Chem 161-2010 Lecture 8

Chem 161-2010 Lecture 8 - CHEMISTRY 161-2010 LECTURE 8...

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CHEMISTRY 161-2010 LECTURE 8 ANNOUNCEMENTS E-MAIL ATTENDANCE EXAMS/QUIZZES Chem 161-2010 Lecture 8 1
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PLAN FOR TODAY CHAPTER 5 • KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY • PRESSURE GAS LAWS Chem 161-2010 Lecture 8 2
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CHAPTER 5 - GASES IMPORTANT GAS LAW FORMULAS Boyle’s Law: P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 (n and T are constant) Charles’s Law: V 1 /T 1 = V 2 /T 2 (n and P are constant) Avogadro’s Law: V 1 /n 1 = V 2 /n 2 (P and T are constant) Pressure: Pressure = force/area Pressure = gravity x density x height 1 mm = 1 Torr 1 atm = 760 mm = 14.696 lb/in 2 Ideal Gas Law: PV = nRT PV = (g/MW)RT P = (g/VMW)RT D = g/L = g/V P = (D/MW)RT Combination Gas Law : P 1 V 1 /n 1 T 1 = P 2 V 2 /n 2 T 2 Also, (P 1 V 1 MW 1 )/(g 1 T 1 ) = (P 2 V 2 MW 2 )/(g 2 T 2 ) Also, (P 1 MW 1 )/(D 1 T 1 ) = (P 2 MW 2 )/(D 2 T 2 ) If any variables are constant, a new equation is derived. e.g., at constant P and T P 1 V 1 /n 1 T 1 = P 2 V 2 /n 2 T 2 V 1 /n 1 = V 2 /n 2 , which is Avogadro’s law e.g., at constant T and V P 1 V 1 /n 1 T 1 = P 2 V 2 /n 2 T 2 P 1 /n 1 = P 2 /n 2 ; n 1 /n 2 = P 1 /P 2 ; n 1 /n T = P 1 /P T , which is Dalton’s law Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures : P 1 + P 2 + P 3 + . . . = P T (KE) avg = (3/2)RT Use SI units: KE = J; R = 8.314J/(Kmol); T = K Root mean square velocity = µ RMS = √(3RT/MW) Use SI units: R = 8.314J/(Kmol); MW = kg/mol Effusion rate: Rate 1 /Rate 2 = √(MW 2 /MW 1 ) Effusion time: Time 1 /Time 2 = √(MW 1 /MW 2 ) Chem 161-2010 Lecture 8 3 A MOLE
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Chem 161-2010 Lecture 8 4 Solid – definite shape Liquid – fluid, adopts the shape of the container that holds it, incompressible Gas – fluid, fills the entire container, compressible Other rarer states: Plasma – sea of ions and electrons, found in stars
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Chem 161-2010 Lecture 8 5
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Kinetic Molecular Theory Provides a picture of how gas molecules/atoms move (Picture each gas molecule or atom as a separate, unreactive sphere.) (1) Molecules are dimensionless points (figure 1c, 3). This means that the volume of the molecules is negligible compared to the volume of the container; mainly empty space around the molecules. (2) Particles are in constant rapid motion (300 m/s) in a straight line (figures 2 and 3). (3) Molecules exert no forces on each other except when they collide with each other (figures 1c and 4) (4) All collisions are perfectly elastic (no loss of kinetic energy to the walls of the container or to other molecules) (figure 4 is true but misleading); (5) When molecules of the gas hit the walls, they push the walls, causing pressure. VERY IMPORTANT CONCEPT - COLLISIONS ARE PRESSURE!
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