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Chem 161-2010 Lecture 9

# Chem 161-2010 Lecture 9 - CHEMISTRY 161-2010 LECTURE 9...

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CHEMISTRY 161-2010 LECTURE 9 ANNOUNCEMENTS E-MAIL ATTENDANCE EXAMS Chem 161-2010 Lecture 9 1

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PLAN FOR TODAY : CHAPTER 5 GASES (5.9-5.12): • REACTION STOICHIOMETRY • PARTIAL PRESSURE (MIXTURES OF GASES) • KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY - EFFUSION & DIFFUSION - REAL GASES Chem 161-2010 Lecture 9 2
CHAPTER 5 - GASES IMPORTANT GAS LAW FORMULAS Boyle’s Law: P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 (n and T are constant) Charles’s Law: V 1 /T 1 = V 2 /T 2 (n and P are constant) Avogadro’s Law: V 1 /n 1 = V 2 /n 2 (P and T are constant) Pressure: Pressure = force/area Pressure = gravity x density x height 1 mm = 1 Torr 1 atm = 760 mm = 14.696 lb/in 2 Ideal Gas Law: PV = nRT PV = (g/MW)RT P = (g/VMW)RT D = g/L = g/V P = (D/MW)RT Combination Gas Law : P 1 V 1 /n 1 T 1 = P 2 V 2 /n 2 T 2 Also, (P 1 V 1 MW 1 )/(g 1 T 1 ) = (P 2 V 2 MW 2 )/(g 2 T 2 ) Also, (P 1 MW 1 )/(D 1 T 1 ) = (P 2 MW 2 )/(D 2 T 2 ) If any variables are constant, a new equation is derived. e.g., at constant P and T P 1 V 1 /n 1 T 1 = P 2 V 2 /n 2 T 2 V 1 /n 1 = V 2 /n 2 , which is Avogadro’s law e.g., at constant T and V P 1 V 1 /n 1 T 1 = P 2 V 2 /n 2 T 2 P 1 /n 1 = P 2 /n 2 ; n 1 /n 2 = P 1 /P 2 ; n 1 /n T = P 1 /P T , which is Dalton’s law Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures : P 1 + P 2 + P 3 + . . . = P T (KE) avg = (3/2)RT Use SI units: KE = J; R = 8.314J/(Kmol); T = K Root mean square velocity = µ RMS = √(3RT/MW) Use SI units: R = 8.314J/(Kmol); MW = kg/mol Effusion rate: Rate 1 /Rate 2 = √(MW 2 /MW 1 ) Effusion time: Time 1 /Time 2 = √(MW 1 /MW 2 ) Chem 161-2010 Lecture 9 3

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ET note: Not everything goes through moles, e.g., volume to grams, grams to volume, atoms to molecules, molecules to atoms. ZUMDAHL 6 TH EDITION CHEM 161-2007 RECITATION 4th WEEK CHAPTER 5 - STOICHIOMETRY Chem 161-2010 Lecture 9 4 A MOLE moles A moles B atoms molecules (or atoms if particle is an atom) M B or V B g B or MW B V B M A or V A V A g A or MW A MOLES ARE AT THE CENTER (FOR CONVERSIONS, WORK THROUGH MOLES) MW (D = g/V) mol A = M A L A moles = P A V A /RT A for gases (molecules x atoms/molecule = atoms) (moles A = g A /MW A ) (moles B = g B /MW B ) (D = g/V) (moles x Avog. No. = molecules (or atoms)) %A % B Empirical formula Molecular formula (MW/EW) x Emp form = molec form moles = g/MW PV = nRT moles = M x V P 1 V 1 /n 1 T 1 =P 2 V 2 /n 2 T 2 g/MW = M x V 6.022x10 23 molecule/mole D = g/L MW A or AW A = g A /mole A moles A = g A /MW A mol A = M A L A moles = P A V A /RT A for gases
• REACTION STOICHIOMETRY ZUMDAHL 5 TH EDITION CHEM 161-2008 RECITATION 5 TH WEEK CHAPTER 5 - GASES REACTION STOICHIOMETRY 49 Calculate the volume of O 2 , at STP, required for the complete combustion of 125 g octane (C 8 H 18 ) to CO 2 and H 2 O. C

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Chem 161-2010 Lecture 9 - CHEMISTRY 161-2010 LECTURE 9...

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