Chem 161-2010 Lecture 15

Chem 161-2010 Lecture 15 - CHEMISTRY 161-2010 LECTURE 15...

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Chem 161-2010 Lecture 15 1 CHEMISTRY 161-2010 LECTURE 15 ATTENDANCE E-MAIL MISCELLANEOUS
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Chem 161-2010 Lecture 15 2 PLAN FOR TODAY : CHAPTER 8.1 – 8.6 MULTIELECTRON VS. 1 ELECTRON ATOMS ELECTRON CONFIGURATION - spdf NOTATION - ORBITAL DIAGRAMS RULES FOR ELECTRON CONFIGURATION - PAULI EXCLUSION PRINCIPLE - HUND’S RULE THE AUFBAU PRINCIPLE - MAIN-GROUP AND TRANSITION ELEMENTS - EXCEPTIONS TO THE AUFBAU PRINCIPLE ELECTRON CONFIGURATIONS.: PERIODIC RELATIONSHIPS - VALENCE SHELL - USING THE PERIODIC TABLE TO WRITE ELECTRON CONFIGURATIONS - VALENCE ELECTRONS AND CORE ELECTRONS - ELECTRON CONFIGURATIONS OF IONS MAGNETIC PROPERTIES: PAIRED AND UNPAIRED ELECTRONS - DIAMAGNETISM - PARAMAGNETISM
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Chem 161-2010 Lecture 15 4 ( ( S S h h i i e e l l d d i i n n g g e e f f f f e e c c t t ) ) ORBITAL ENERGY DIAGRAMS
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Chem 161-2010 Lecture 15 5 NODES: A particular distance where the probability of finding an electron is zero 3s orbital 3s Orbital Probability of Finding Electrons
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Chem 161-2010 Lecture 15 6 ORBITAL ENERGIES Use the hydrogen atom as the reference point. The hydrogen atom electron configuration is uncomplicated because it is merely derived from a single electron interacting with a single proton in the nucleus. All subshells of a principal shell are at the same energy level. The principal shell energies, and the corresponding subshell and orbital energies, depend on the quantum number, n. This energy is calculated from the Bohr formula, E n = -B/n 2 . Orbital energies of multielectron atoms The nuclear charge is increased. Therefore, the electron-proton bonding is stronger, and the electron has lower energy (Coulomb’s Law: F=q 1 q 2 /r 12 ). The subshells are at different energy levels. This is because the electrons from some subshells (e.g., “s”) shield the electrons from the attractive forces of the positive nuclear charge better than the electrons from other subshells (e.g., “p”). This is because the electrons in the s orbital, e.g., 2s, have a region of high density close to the nucleus, while the electrons in the 2p orbital have a node at the nucleus, prohibiting electrons from being near the nucleus. Hence, the s electrons “penetrates” through inner-shell electrons to approach the nucleus.
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This document was uploaded on 11/02/2011 for the course GEN CHEM 162 at Rutgers.

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Chem 161-2010 Lecture 15 - CHEMISTRY 161-2010 LECTURE 15...

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