Chem 161-2010 Lecture 17

Chem 161-2010 Lecture 17 - CHEMISTRY 161-2010 LECTURE 17...

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CHEMISTRY 161-2010 LECTURE 17 ANNOUNCEMENTS ATTENDANCE QUIZZES EXAMS/QUIZZES MISCELLANEOUS LECTURE QUIZ? Chem 161-2010 17 th week 1
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PLAN FOR TODAY : FINISH FRIDAY’S LECTURE CHAPTER 9.1 – 9.6 BOND ENERGIES OF IONIC BOND FORMATION -- Lattice energies (Born-Haber cycle) LEWIS STRUCTURES Chem 161-2010 17 th week 2
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Chem 161-2010 17 th week 3 SMALLER ATOM SMALLER ION MORE ENDOTH. FIRST IONIZATION ENERGY MORE EXOTH. FIRST ELECTRON AFFINITY GREATER ELECTRONEGATIVITY LESS METALLIC PROPERTY GOOD REDUCTION POOR OXIDIZING AGENT ACIDIC OXIDES PERIODIC TABLE AND PERIODIC PROPERTIES
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OXIDATION AND REDUCTION H & P 71. Complete and balance the following equation. If no reaction occurs, so indicate. ET: Consider periodic trends of oxidation and reduction potentials Cl 2 (g) + 2Br - (aq) → 2Cl - + Br 2 or Br 2 (g) + 2Cl - (aq) → 2Br - + Cl 2 Determine whether Cl or Br is more easily reduced. 35 Br = 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 5 17 Cl = 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 5 Based on the number of occupied principal shells (i.e., closeness of valence electrons to the nucleus), chlorine has a higher electron affinity than bromine. Hence, Cl will capture electrons from Br, not the other way around. Hence, Cl is more easily reduced than Br. Cl 2 (g) + 2Br - (aq) → 2Cl - + Br 2 Chem 161-2010 17 th week 4 17+ 7+ 2- 7- 8- X X X 2- 7+ 35+ 7- 18- 8- X X X X ? ?
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Chem 161-2010 17 th week 5
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METALS, NONMETALS, METALLOIDS AND NOBLE GASES Upper right: More non-metallic character Steps in middle: Metalloids (mixture of metallic and non- metallic character) (e.g., silicon is a semi-conductor; i.e., it is a conductor under some conditions, but not others) Lower left: More metallic character Chem 161-2010 17 th week 6
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th week The s-block elements The s-block elements Group 1 very reactive, forming +1 ions (smallest 1 st  ionization  energy) 19 K = 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 1 → K + = 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 soft, malleable Good reducing agents;  react with water 2Na(s) + 2H 2Na(s) + 2H 2 O( O( l l )   H )   H 2 (g) + 2Na (g) + 2Na + (aq) + 2OH (aq) + 2OH - (aq) (aq) Group 2 less reactive form +2 ions (except Be) 12 Mg = 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 → Mg 2+ = 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 Oxides of metals are basic oxides (i.e., they form bases). Li
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Chem 161-2010 Lecture 17 - CHEMISTRY 161-2010 LECTURE 17...

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