Chem 161-2010 Lecture 22

Chem 161-2010 Lecture 22 - CHEMISTRY 161-2010 LECTURE 22...

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CHEMISTRY 161-2010 LECTURE 22 ATTENDANCE EXAM Chem 161-2010 Lecture 22 1
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PLAN FOR TODAY : CHAPTER 11 (11.1 – 11.4) STATES OF MATTER AND INTERMOLECULAR FORCES • PHASE CHANGES AND PHASE DIAGRAMS Intramolecular forces: forces within molecules, i.e., bonds “Intra”, Latin, = within, e.g., intramural sports Chem 161-2010 Lecture 22 2
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Intermolecular forces: Forces betweenmolecules “Inter”, Latin = between, e.g., intercollegiate athletics Chem 161-2010 Lecture 22 3 INTERMOLECULAR FORCES
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THE DIFFERENCE IS THE STRENGTH OF THE INTERMOLECULAR BONDING Chem 161-2010 Lecture 22 4
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Gas: Intermolecular attractive forces weaker than the kinetic energy. Liquid: Intermolecular attractive force just overcomes the kinetic energy. Solid: Intermolec. attractive force strongly overcomes the kinetic energy. Gas does not have a fixed volume; expands to fill the container. Gas: has rotational, vibrational and translational motion. Liquid has a fixed volume; assumes the shape of the container. Liquid: has rotational, vibrational and translational motion. Solid has a fixed volume; maintains a definite shape. Solid: only has vibrational motion Chem 161-2010 Lecture 22 5
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PHASE CHANGES Vaporization: liquid → gas e.g., H 2 O( l ) → H 2 O( g ) ∆H vapn = 44.0 kJ/mol Note endothermic ∆H vapn Chem 161-2010 Lecture 22 6
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DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM OF VAPORIZATION Dynamic equilibrium : No change is seen in the system at the macroscopic level, but there is activity at the microscopic level. Molecules of liquid vaporize and condense at the same rate. Vapor pressure of a liquid : the partial pressure exerted by the vapor in equilibrium with the liquid at a given temperature. Boiling point : The temperature at which the vapor pressure becomes equal to the prevailing atmospheric pressure. Normal boiling point : the boiling point at 1 atmosphere. The atmospheric pressure of the mile high city, Denver, Colorado, air pressure is 630 mm Hg, and boiling point is 95 o C.
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This document was uploaded on 11/02/2011 for the course GEN CHEM 162 at Rutgers.

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Chem 161-2010 Lecture 22 - CHEMISTRY 161-2010 LECTURE 22...

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