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Toltecs-Students - Toltecs Toltecs Who were the Toltecs?...

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Unformatted text preview: Toltecs Toltecs Who were the Toltecs? Tula Toltec Sphere of Influence Toltec Fall of Tula and the Toltecs Fall Tolteca-Chichimeca & Nonoalca Tolteca-Chichimeca Populated Populated by two groups Tolteca-Chichimeca Nonoalca Toltec economy Toltec Agriculture Agriculture Irrigation was essential Hunting and Gathering Craft Production Commerce / Trade *Sahagun was a Spanish missionary, born in Sahagun, Leon, late in the 15th century; died in Mexico, 23 October, 1590. Artifacts: Pottery Artifacts: Brazier with skulls Duck effigy bowl Pipes Papagayo polychrome bowl http://www.rose-hulman.edu/~delacova/toltecs-dishware.htm Artifacts: Stone Carvings Artifacts: Jaguar statue Figurines http://www.rose-hulman.edu/~delacova/toltec-standing-figurines.htm Atlantes Atlantes Altar support from the Temple of Quetzalcoatl Rear view of the altar support http://www.rose-hulman.edu/~delacova/tula-atlantes.htm Religion Religion Tezcaltlipoca Tláloc Centéotl ltzpapáloti Tonatiuh Tonatiuh Tlaloc god of rain Tlaloc http://www.rose-hulman.edu/~delacova/toltec-tlaloc.htm Politics - "The Toltec State" Politics Precise definitions of borders impossible Motivation for empire building was "free" Motivation wealth in the form of tribute Matricula de Tributos, an Aztec document, Matricula gives us an idea of the types of tribute received Important rulers mentioned in drama of Toltec history Tolpitzin Tolpitzin Quetzalcoatl Tezcatlipoca ("Smoking Mirror") Tezcatlipoca Kukulcan Kukulcan Huemac Archaeology Archaeology Multi-ethnic group that introduced changes in public and religious Multi-ethnic architecture and new styles of stone carving and ceramics. architecture Tula builders did not call themselves Toltecs, but the Aztec used the Tula word to refer to a skilled craftsperson or artisan. word Carnegie Museum of Washington who had been working at Chichen Carnegie Itza began excavations at Tula, Hidalgo., also University of Missouri worked with Mesoamerican groups to conduct work after 1966. worked mixture of Nahuatl, Otomi, Nonoalca, Chichimec peoples. Chronology in the area based largely on ceramics. Prior to 400 A.D. Tula region was integrated with Teotihuacan, but most Prior people in the area were farmers and also some Hilltop sites such as Mogone. Mogone. By around 700 A.D. areas such as Tula Chico which is situated north of By the Tula area with civic-ceremonial architecture laid out in a n-s axis. the Several areas occupied for different reasons and at different times in Several Tula. Tula. Tula Chica, Cerro Mogone, Tula Grande, Tula de Allende, Canal Tula Locality, El Corral, Cerro El Cielito, Cerro La Malinche. Locality, Early Excavations Early Archaeologist Jorge Acosta, primary excavato at Tula, stands next to Pyramid B. http://www.rose-hulman.edu/~delacova/tula-excavations.htm Tula Tula A.D. 900-1200 Development of city north of Teotihuacan. Located on the Tula river and near the Lerma Located rivers for easy communication with others. rivers This new capital was closer to the northern limits This of agriculture. of Toltec history embellished by Aztecs, Spaniards Toltec and others after their collapse in 1200 A.D. and Tula Tula Geography Geography north of Valley of Mexico in southern part of state of Hidalgo north rivers flow northeast to Rio Moctezuma, then down Sierra Madre rivers Oriental into Rio Panuco and Gulf of Mexico Dry, desertified area Dry, hardy scrup and cactus thickets, mesquite, prickly pear, and yucca hardy soils are rich, alluvial ones but irrigation necessary for agriculture soils high mountains to the east hold clouds away from area and rainy high season precipitation is insufficient for rainfall agriculture Tula area has slightly more rain, irrigation water, and arable land Tula than rest of region Climate Climate mild, with annual temperatures ranging from 16-19C (60-66F) mild, monthly temperatures average from 11C (52F) in December to monthly 38C (100F) in May with frosts frequent in winter Tula Grande Tula Just south of Tula Chico, was occupied during the prime phase of Tula 9501150 A.D. 13 km in area, with a population of 30-60,000 residents. craftspeople, trades people, religious leaders, but not farmers. workshops included manos and metates makers. workshops City laid out on n-s axis. center with double plaza complex, two pyramids, council halls, and a colonnaded center vestibule. vestibule. two ballcourts, much of this built on large single platform 10-15 meters in height. Building C was the most impressive but was destroyed. Building B is the Temple to Quetzalcoatl. stone sculpture is largely made of columns, pillars, relief panels, and atlantids stone which are figures of men used to support roofs or altars. which a new feature known as a serpent wall which does not surround the temple but is new free standing along the north. free also depictions of Patolli playing which is a game of chance played by many also mesoamerican groups and is similar to modern Parchessi. mesoamerican chacmool figures as well. 1. North Ball Court 2. Coatepantli 3. Palace of Quetzalcoatl 4. Palace of the Columns 5. Vestibule 6. Temple of Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli 7. Mound C 8. Tzompantli 9. South Ball Court Tula Ballcourts Tula Ballcourt 1 Ballcourt 2 Stone (found in the center of the ballcourt) possibly connected with the scoring or ritual of the game http://www.rose-hulman.edu/~delacova/ballcourt-no2.htm Palace of the Columns Temple of Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli Temple (Temple of the Morning Star) http://www.rose-hulman.edu/~delacova/tula-temple.htm Atlantes Atlantean warrior columns on the summit of Pyramid B, Tula Grande. All are made of basalt and are over fifteen feet tall. Pyramid B: Temple of Quetzalcoatl Chacmool http://www.rose-hulman.edu/~delacova/toltecs1.htm Recreation of what the temple would have looked like in the past. have Pyramid C Talud-tablero Drainage in Rear of pyramid http://www.rose-hulman.edu/~delacova/tula-2.htm Coatepantli Detail of the Coatepantli, which depicts a band of serpents devouring a skeletal form On the inner side of this is a well preserved frieze depicting a rather grisly scene of a long line of snakes swallowing skeletal people, who are thought to be warriors. Palace of Quetzalcoatl Toltec Sphere of Influence Toltec Sphere Trade vs. Empire Fall of Tula and the Toltecs Fall Sahagun's Davies version Problems were both Internal and External External Agriculture Agriculture Conflicts Social Social integration Archaeological evidence Archaeological Evidence Evidence for fire and destruction found in every building Not clear that all of it took place at once Not Canal Locality houses appear to have Canal been abandoned by 1100 on the basis of radiocarbon dates Urban peripheries appear to have been Urban abandoned before central core Toltec Legacy Toltec Slowly, a few city states rose up to dominate their Slowly, neighbors, but no real successor to the Toltec power emerged during this period. The Kings of Culhuacan, as described in their "Annales de The Culhuacan" had some limited power, claiming descent from the legendary Toltecs. But every other dynasty (Quiche, Itza, Mixtec, Chichimec) But did the same. Claiming to be a descendent of the Toltec Kings was Claiming routine; even if many of the earliest rulers after the fall of Tula were in all likelihood truly related to the nobles of the Mixcoatl/Topiltzin/Huemac era, most of the succeeding generations of petty rulers were not. History, however, is written by the victors, and the victors in History, the incessant warfare of the post-Toltec era were eager to associate themselves with the once glorious Toltecs. ...
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