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The Tarascans - The Tarascans The Tzintzuntzan Artifacts...

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Unformatted text preview: The Tarascans The Tzintzuntzan Artifacts Relationship with Aztecs The Tarascan The Among the fertile volcanoes of Michoacan Among Lumholtz came across the Purepecha people, who were called Tarascan by the Spanish. who Enemies of the Aztecs, the Tarascans flourished Enemies from 1100 A.D. to 1530 A.D. Their origins are still a puzzle, along with their Their stirrup-shaped, long-necked bottles and round temples called Yacatas. temples The center of the Tarascan Empire was Lake The Patzcuaro and the nearby site of Tzintzuntzan, now a much-visited archaeological site Lake Patzcuaro Region Lake http://www.humanities-interactive.org/unknown/ex085_14.html Origin Origin Their exact origin remains unknown, but Their linguistic similarities to the Quechua language of South America have been noted. South America may also have been the source South for the Tarascan pottery styles and metalworking techniques that were not previously known in Mexico. The Tarascan capital city of Tzintzuntzan was The dominated by a huge platform supporting a row of five temple pyramids called yácatas. From this religious and administrative center, the From Tarascans waged war against their neighbors. Tarascan History Tarascan The Tarascans’ own legendary history, as related in the The Relación de Michoacán, picks up the story. Relación Somewhere around 1325, the great king, military, leader, Somewhere and culture hero Taríacuri – one of the uacúsecha, who uacúsecha, had established themselves as an elite lineage – declared himself as lord and Pátzcuaro as his capital. He furthermore set his nephews up as secondary rulers: He Hiripan at Ihuatzio, and Tangáxoan at Tzintzuntzan. By 1350, the three of them had begun a successful series of military conquests in and around the Pátzcuaro Basin; and, after Taríacuri’s death, his nephews continued to expand their sphere of influence to the area around Lake Cuitzeo Tarascan warfare: Exapansion Tarascan One of the king’s duties was to conquer new One lands for the god Curicaueri (Fire God). Following a decision to go to war, an important Following religious act occurred: The priests at Tzintzuntzan lit huge bonfires which, when seen, were to be duplicated by priests at the other eight administrative centers. All 91 settlements in the Lake Pátzcuaro Basin All were able to see the fires from one or more of these centers, and thus the message to prepare for war was received for Warfare: Threats & Defense Warfare: Expansion was not the only reason for the Expansion Tarascans to go to war. Threats to their way of life and resource networks could trigger Threats military action. Lameiras notes a war conducted against Tarascan allies (pueblos confederados) iin the south of Jalisco n Tarascan who were attempting to control access to the saltpeter beds at Sayula And of course, defense – primarily against incursions by the And Aztecs – continued to necessitate a standing army and military network even after the empire had reached an impressive size. network Traditional weapons used by the Tarascans Traditional included the bow and arrow, lances, and the atlatl, with some use also of maces and atlatl, slingshots. Peripheral Borders Peripheral In the Río Palos Altos Basin between the In Tarascan controlled ridgeline and the Aztec fortified line was a no-man’s-land that appears to have been abandoned as imperial intervention in the area caused increased militarization. It is theorized that a 3 km long wall discovered in It the no-man’s-land appears to have been a Chontal (borderland culture) construction aimed at defending important cotton and cacao producing lands. One end of the wall had an artifact distribution One suggesting that a Prehispanic battle had been fought there. http://www.famsi.org/reports/97014/index.html http://www.famsi.org/reports/97014/index.html Chontal fortress at Ixtepec http://www.famsi.org/ reports/97014/index. html Natural Defensive Barrier Natural http://www.famsi.org/reports/97014/index.html Tarascan society Tarascan Although Tarascan society was socially stratified Although with nobility, commoners, and slaves, there is no archaeological evidence to indicate that the Tarascan sites were much more than rural settlements, the exception being their capital city of Tzintzuntzan. The Tarascans were excellent craftsmen in The many materials. Their metalworking skills were the most advanced in Their Mexico. They were also accomplished at pottery making and lapidary work. Their utilitarian domestic pottery contrasted sharply Their with the exotic designs of funerary pottery. Tarascan society Tarascan By the time of the Conquest, the Lake Pátzcuaro By Basin held a population of 60,000 to 100,000 inhabitants, spread among 91 settlements of varying sizes. To administer this dense population and the To outlying regions, effective social, economic, and administrative structures were needed. Indeed, these were in place by the Protohistoric Indeed, period (1450-1520), and they continued to evolve with the expansion of the empire and incorporation of new peoples, trade goods, religious philosophies, etc. Social Stratification Social Kinship was extremely important to the Tarascans. Kinship Social class was essentially determined at birth, with only minimal movement between classes. Gorenstein and Pollard have discerned three hereditary Gorenstein social classes, based on information in the Relación de Michoacán and on excavations made at Tzintzuntzan: and the Cazonci, sometimes also called irecha; and the royal lineage the Cazonci, irecha; (lords, señores) señores nobility, also known as principales, caciques, señores naturales; nobility, principales, señores who were connected with and had responsibility in certain settlements settlements commoners, also called purépecha, la gente baja, gente común commoners, purépecha, There were also slaves, found only in connection with There the royal lineage. Economy Economy Products such as honey, cotton, feathers, copal, Products and deposits of salt, gold, and copper were highly prized by the Tarascans. Neighboring regions that possessed these Neighboring commodities quickly became a primary target of military expansion. When conquered, the peoples of these regions When were expected to pay tributes of material goods to the Tarascan lord. Tarascan Religion Tarascan Like the Aztecs, the Tarascans had many deities, each Like with their own attributes, requirements, sacred colors, associated animals, and calendrical days. The most ancient and revered Tarascan deity was The Curicaueri, the fire god. A Tarascan origin myth tells the story of how Curicaueri Tarascan and his brother gods founded the settlements around Lake Pátzcuaro. The pre-Columbian Tarascans believed themselves to The be Curicaueri's descendants. When rulers and priests dressed in their ritual finery and When performed ceremonial dances, they were affirming the connection to their ancestor gods. Tzintzuntzan Architecture Tzintzuntzan There is little of monumental architecture to be found in There the Tarascan empire. Neither the major cities of the heartland nor the frontier Neither towns appear to have been fortified in any significant way. Though there were trade routes, they were apparently Though “unimproved,” as the building of roads and bridges was one of the first efforts undertaken by the Spaniards. Only two ball courts are known, and neither is in Only Tzintzuntzan where one might expect to find one. It is this relative lack of monumental architecture which It led many to assume that the Tarascans had not achieved state-level society … and, that there was not much interesting to be learned about them. much Tzintzuntzan Architecture Tzintzuntzan http://www.rose-hulman.edu/~delacova/tzintzuntzan.htm Tzintzuntzan Tzintzuntzan The View of Lake Pátzcuaro from The Palace Tzintzuntzan Tzintzuntzan Tzintzuntzan Tzintzuntzan Looking east in the opposite direction from the picture above, this shows the construction of the terrace above the lake. Looking north more of the huge open plaza behind the temple structures. The Yácata The The Yácata, a typically Tarascan building, appears to The have been used as both a mortuary and a habitation. The structure consists of three parts whose ground plan is The shaped more or less like a capital T: a rectangular stepped pyramid, a round stepped pyramid that is placed at the mid-point of the rectangle, and a stepped passageway which joins the round structure to the rectangle. Carl Lumholtz describes three yácatas which he saw in Carl the Sierra de los Tarascos: "The mound is built of Sierra stones, without mortar, in the shape of a 'T,' each arm about 50 feet long and thirty-two feet high. The western arm terminates in a circular construction, a kind of knob. The sides all rise in regular steps from the ground, and the level The surface on top of the arms is only six feet wide, while the base is twenty feet broad. These encircling steps make the monument singularly symmetrical and graceful." Yacata. Line drawing (after Yacata. Lumholtz) by Jimmie I. Clubb. http://www.humanities-interactive.org/unknown/ex085_14.html Bowls Bowls http://www.rose-hulman.edu/~delacova/tarascan.htm Spouted Jars Spouted http://www.rose-hulman.edu/~delacova/tarascan.htm Olla with painted designs. Clay, paint. 1100-1500 A.D. http://www.humanities-interactive.org/unknown/ex085_14.html Tarascan Grave Goods Tarascan All manner of personal objects would have been All placed in Tarascan burials. Common grave offerings included miniature Common pottery vessels; bells, needles, tweezers, and axes made of copper; long-stemmed clay smoking pipes; obsidian lip plugs, ear spools, and knives; shell beads; highly decorated pottery vessels, some filled with food and drink; and occasionally even gold ornaments. Jewelry: Earplugs, Shell Pendants, and a Shell Necklace http://www.rose-hulman.edu/~delacova/tarascan.htm Copper Copper http://www.rose-hulman.edu/~delacova/tarascan.htm Obsidian Cores http://www.rose-hulman.edu/~delacova/tarascan.htm The Aztecs The The Aztecs attempted more than once to conquer the The Tarascan lands but never attained their goal. This left the Aztecs with a major rival on their western This border. In combat, they repeatedly suffered grievous losses to In the Tarascan armies. For example, in 1478 the ruling Aztec lord, Axayacatl, marched For against the Tarascans. He found his army of 24,000 confronted by an opposing force of He more than 40,000 Tarascan warriors. A ferocious battle went on all day. Many of the Aztec warriors ferocious were badly wounded by arrows, stones, spears, and sword thrusts. The following day, the Aztecs were forced to retreat, having The suffered the loss of more than half of their elite warriors. Arrival of the Spanish Arrival The arrival of the Spanish Captain Hernán Cortés and his men on The the east coast of Mexico in April 1519 led to the end of both the Aztec and the Tarascan Empires. Knowing that the Spaniards were on their way to the Aztec capital of Knowing Tenochtitlán, the Aztecs sent some emissaries to the Tarascans to ask for help. Instead of providing assistance, they sacrificed the Aztec Instead messengers. Tenochtitlán fell in 1520 after a bloody siege. Tenochtitlán The Tarascans' turn came in 1522. The The last Tarascan king, Tangaxoan II, offered little resistance. The Once he submitted, all the other Tarascan realms surrendered peacefully. After the conquest, the Spanish crown appointed Don Vasco de After Quiroga to govern the Tarascan villages. He decided that each community should be noted for the production of a specialized art form. This vision of artistic specialization and commercial production persists today. Why isn't the Tarascan Empire better known? better Remarks made by sixteenth century Spanish soldiers and Remarks missionaries give the impression that the Tarascan king was considered to be second in power only to the Aztec ruler Moctezuma. Some early accounts even rank the two as equals. Some Missionaries who served among both the Aztecs and the Tarascans Missionaries considered the Tarascans superior to all other peoples in New Spain. Unlike the Aztecs, the Tarascans left no personal documentary Unlike histories, and they had no missionary-historian-defender ready to write down their story as it might have been dictated at the time of conquest. The best source of historical information is the Relación de The Michoacán compiled by an anonymous Spanish Franciscan friar Michoacán around 1538. The Relación de Michoacán, coupled with archaeological The Relación excavations and a significant body of pottery, copper, and stone objects affords us a glimpse into the lives of these West Mexican peoples. The Tarascan Today The Florentina Dominga, a Tarascan woman, with a midwife's offering; August 6, 1978. Tarascan masked dancers, "owner" (left) and "watcher" (right. http://hearstmuseum.berkeley.edu/exhibitions/tzin/21.html ...
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