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Unformatted text preview: Mayan Social Mayan Social Organization
and Copan Origins of Cultural Complexity
Origins of Cultural Complexity
► Irrigation Agriculture ► Warfare/Population Growth
► Craft Specialization
► Ideology ► Multifaceted Explanations Maya: Chiefdom or State?
Maya: Chiefdom or State?
► Chiefdoms regionally organized societies.
differences in prestige, wealth and power.
early Hawaiian societies. ► States/Empires stratified, complex systems.
control of many people, distinct hierarchy.
empires have tremendous size and influences a large area (Mesopotamia, Inca, Aztec). Neither: CityState
► ► ► Neither during the Classic period nor at any other time does there seem to have been any political unification of the area as a whole. Rather, political organization seems to have been described by a series of small, citystatelike polities, each characterized by its own internal differentiation of status and power. While much earlier literature refers to professional rulers and priests, the present view is that the higherstatus individuals were more probably heads of patrilineages, and that much of the religious complex was centered on ancestor worship rather than on universal gods. Civic Centers
► These civic centers were numerous, including Copán in Honduras, and Palenque in Mexico (others: El Mirador, Piedras Negras, Tikal, and Uaxactún in the N central Petén region of Guatemala, and Uxmal in Mexico). PALENQUE
► Location foot of northernmost hills of Chiapas ►Sierra de Palenque rainfall close to 3000 mm
southwestern periphery of Maya area Dynastic sequence at Palenque
Dynastic sequence at Palenque
► Pacal (Shield) born in 603, acceded in 615 at the age of 12, ruled for 68 years (615683) began construction of Temple ca. 675, died in 683 at the age of 80 ► Chan Bahlum or Can Balam (Snake Jaguar) II acceded to the throne when he was 48, 132 days after the death of his father, on January 10, 684 responsible for finishing father's temple Pacal’s Tomb
► Discovered in the Temple of the Inscriptions. ► It was on June 15, 1952, that Alfred Ruz and his excavation crew looked upon a tomb that had been hidden away for over twelve centuries. Stairway to Tomb
Stairway to Tomb http://www.usu.edu/anthro/origins_of_writing/pacal/optimized
Lid of Sarcophagus http://www.delange.org/PalenqueTomb/PalenqueTomb.htm Jade Funeral Mask of Pacal
Reproduction of tomb
http://www.delange.org/PalenqueTomb/PalenqueTomb.htm Buildings and monuments
Buildings and monuments
► Temple of the Inscriptions ► Cross Group (Temple of the Cross)
► Temple of the Foliated Cross ► Ball Court Palace and the Temple of Palace and the Temple of Inscriptions http://www.delange.org/PalenqueRuins/PalenqueRuins.htm Palace: West Steps
Palace: West Steps http://www.delange.org/PalenqueRuins/PalenqueRuins.htm Palace Stucco Relief
Palace Stucco Relief L Pacal, R ZacKuk, His Mother
Or His Wife, AhpoHel. http://www.delange.org/PalenqueRuins/PalenqueRuins.htm Cross Group
Cross Group http://www.delange.org/PalenqueRuins/PalenqueRuins.htm Temple of the Foliated Cross
Temple of the Foliated Cross
A.D. 692 http://www.delange.org/PalenqueRuins/PalenqueRuins.htm Ballcourt A.D. 500
Ballcourt A.D. 500 http://www.delange.org/PalenqueRuins/PalenqueRuins.htm Copan’s Dynasty
► Yax Kuk Mo' lineage founder death or burial 18.104.22.168.0 (AD 437) Cu Ixno other info
► Waterlily Jaguarno other info
► Moon Jaguar ► tomb found in 1992 ► Butz Chan ► ► Smoke Imix 18 Rabbit: accedes 22.214.171.124.8 (AD 695) Smoke Monkey: accession 126.96.36.199.5, 39 days after 18 Rabbit's death Smoke Shell: accession 188.8.131.52.10 (AD 749), dedication of hieroglyphic stairway 184.108.40.206.10 (AD 749).
Yax Pac ► U Cit Tok: attempted accession 220.127.116.11.5 (AD 822) ►
► Accedes: 18.104.22.168.8 (AD 578), death 22.214.171.124.9 (AD 628) also known as "SunatHorizon" or "Madrugada" 16th and last known ruler dedication of Altar Q 126.96.36.199.0 (AD 775) Copan Hieroglyphic Stairway
Copan Hieroglyphic Stairway http://www.delange.org/Copan1/Copan1.htm Copan Ball Court
Copan Ball Court http://www.delange.org/Copan1/Copan1.htm Altar Q Shows the 16 Kings Of Copan Passing Baton Of Rule
Down Through The Generations http://www.delange.org/Copan1/Copan1.htm ...
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- Fall '08