Mayan Social organization

Mayan Social organization - Mayan Social Mayan Social...

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Unformatted text preview: Mayan Social Mayan Social Organization Palenque and Copan Origins of Cultural Complexity Origins of Cultural Complexity ► Irrigation Agriculture ► Warfare/Population Growth ► Craft Specialization ► Ideology ► Multi­faceted Explanations Maya: Chiefdom or State? Maya: Chiefdom or State? ► Chiefdoms regionally organized societies. hereditary inequality differences in prestige, wealth and power. early Hawaiian societies. ► States/Empires stratified, complex systems. control of many people, distinct hierarchy. empires have tremendous size and influences a large area (Mesopotamia, Inca, Aztec). Neither: City­State Neither: City­State ► ► ► Neither during the Classic period nor at any other time does there seem to have been any political unification of the area as a whole. Rather, political organization seems to have been described by a series of small, city­state­like polities, each characterized by its own internal differentiation of status and power. While much earlier literature refers to professional rulers and priests, the present view is that the higher­status individuals were more probably heads of patrilineages, and that much of the religious complex was centered on ancestor worship rather than on universal gods. Civic Centers Civic Centers ► These civic centers were numerous, including Copán in Honduras, and Palenque in Mexico (others: El Mirador, Piedras Negras, Tikal, and Uaxactún in the N central Petén region of Guatemala, and Uxmal in Mexico). PALENQUE PALENQUE ► Location foot of northernmost hills of Chiapas ►Sierra de Palenque rainfall close to 3000 mm southwestern periphery of Maya area Dynastic sequence at Palenque Dynastic sequence at Palenque ► Pacal (Shield) born in 603, acceded in 615 at the age of 12, ruled for 68 years (615­683) began construction of Temple ca. 675, died in 683 at the age of 80 ► Chan Bahlum or Can Balam (Snake Jaguar) II acceded to the throne when he was 48, 132 days after the death of his father, on January 10, 684 responsible for finishing father's temple Pacal’s Tomb Pacal’s Tomb ► Discovered in the Temple of the Inscriptions. ► It was on June 15, 1952, that Alfred Ruz and his excavation crew looked upon a tomb that had been hidden away for over twelve centuries. Stairway to Tomb Stairway to Tomb /11.jpg Tomb Lid of Sarcophagus Jade Funeral Mask of Pacal Reproduction of tomb Buildings and monuments Buildings and monuments ► Temple of the Inscriptions ► Cross Group (Temple of the Cross) ► Temple of the Foliated Cross ► Ball Court Palace and the Temple of Palace and the Temple of Inscriptions Palace: West Steps Palace: West Steps Palace Stucco Relief Palace Stucco Relief L ­ Pacal, R ­ ZacKuk, His Mother Or His Wife, Ahpo­Hel. Cross Group Cross Group Temple of the Foliated Cross Temple of the Foliated Cross A.D. 692 Ballcourt A.D. 500 Ballcourt A.D. 500 Copan’s Dynasty Copan’s Dynasty ► Yax Kuk Mo' lineage founder death or burial (AD 437) Cu Ix­no other info ► Waterlily Jaguar­no other info ► Moon Jaguar ► tomb found in 1992 ► Butz Chan ► ► Smoke Imix 18 Rabbit: accedes (AD 695) Smoke Monkey: accession, 39 days after 18 Rabbit's death Smoke Shell: accession (AD 749), dedication of hieroglyphic stairway (AD 749). Yax Pac ► U Cit Tok: attempted accession (AD 822) ► ► ► Accedes: (AD 578), death (AD 628) also known as "Sun­at­Horizon" or "Madrugada" 16th and last known ruler dedication of Altar Q (AD 775) Copan Hieroglyphic Stairway Copan Hieroglyphic Stairway Copan Ball Court Copan Ball Court Altar Q Shows the 16 Kings Of Copan Passing Baton Of Rule Down Through The Generations ...
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