Unformatted text preview: From Hunting and
Gathering to Farming
Archaic Period Cultures
Origins of Food Production
Why, Where and When did Food Production Occur?
Mesoamerican Food Production
Consequences Archaic Period Cultures
Archaic (Incipient Farming) Period 10,000-3000 BC Ajuereado (12-9,600 B.P.), pre-agriculture, hunting and
El Reigo (9-7,000 B.P.), microbands in seasonal camps,
domesticated plants such as squash, amaranth, ground
stone tools, mortars and pestles.
Coxcatlan (7-5,400 B.P.), macrobands in semisedentary,
bottlegourd, squash, beans, and maize.
Abejas & Purron (5,400-3,300 B.P.), year round
occupations, corn, beans, pumpkin, cotton, dogs.
occupations, Ajuereado (12-9,600 B.P.) 10000
Hunting and Gathering 40% diet plants
6% other Social Organization: Band
Working of agave fiber to make baskets
and bags. Agave Fiber Baskets
(recent Ell Reigo (9-7,000 B.P.): 7,000E
19 species of wild plants
Beginnings of squash, avocado and chili
pepper domestication (about 5% of diet).
pepper Coxcatlan (7-5,400 B.P.): 5,500Coxcatlan
Food from gardening increases to 14%.
Corn, chilies, squash and amaranth.
Rabbit drives and fishing. Coxcatlan Cave
Tehuacan Valley of Mexico Coxcatlan cave has revealed 28 occupational layers or zones. Each layer was
considered to have a distinct deposit, laid down during a single time interval.
The excavation revealed objects used by humans prior to ceramics.
http://emuseum.mnsu.edu/archaeology/sites/meso_america/coxcatlan_phase.htm Coxcatlan Cave
Coxcatlan A small corn cob found during the
excavation is shown alongside of
an ink pen. The cob compares to
that of a popcorn cob, and this
type of corn was estimated to
have grown in the Tehuacan
Valley around 5000 BC. Abejas and Purron (5,400-3,300
B.P.): 3,500-1,500 B.C.
Agriculture 21-35% of diet.
Corn as major part of agricultural
economy. Origins of Food Production
Changes during the Lae Pleistocene Warming caused glaciers to melt and sea levels rose.
Extinction of many plant and animal species. Cultural Changes Humans shifted from a focus on megafauna to broad spectrum
Smaller game, fishing, increase in plant gathering. Specialized regional patterns and technology: Mesolithic
in Europe, Archaic in Americas.
New World Archaic adaptations, such as at Koster site in Illinois.
Wide variety of food-fish, mussels, nuts, deer, small game. Food Production
Shift from food gathering to food production in
different parts of the world.
different Deliberate gathering of seeds for planting.
Taming of wild animals. People began to rely on certain plants or
animals. Artificial selection-people encourage the reproduction
of certain plants or animals.
Gradually results in types of plants and animals that
are distinct from wild species.
The process of establishing human control
over a plant or animals reproduction.
Humans select mates for animals/plants
with particular characteristics.
with How do we recognize this
Plants Domesticated plants have stronger stem areas where
the seeds attach (rachis).
Also tend to have larger edible parts. Animals Species outside native area.
i.e. Horses not native to Egypt, but found there
archaeologically 4,000 years ago.
archaeologically Morphological changes.
Measurements-get smaller during domestication.
Sex ratios and age profiles.
Cultural Evidence Why, Where, and When did Food
Why? Today we take food production for granted, just go to
the supermarket and get what we want.
Hunting and gathering actually takes less time and
effort than food production.
ii.e. soil has to be worked, crops planted, pests controlled,
harves, processed. Hunters-gatherers spend about 12-19
days per week.
days Agriculture is also risky-could have crops die due to
Oasis Theory-V. Gordon Childe, climate at end of Pleis
forced peopleto change, move to isolated areas and
produce food. However, no real evidence that the
environment changed that dramatically.
Readiness Hypothesis-Robert Braidwood suggested that
humans became increasingly familiar with plants and
animals in their area and began to domesticate them, but
does not explain how.
Human Selection and Environment-Particular local
conditions may have affected different patterns of
domestication. ii.e. in East Asia, people were sedentary food collectors and
logically started planting.
logically Coevolution-David Rindos suggests that humans
unintentionally promoted dispersal of certain types of
plants by weeding, stroing, or irrigating particular wild
resources. Population Models
Esther Boserup suggested that societies will
intensify food produciton only when forced to by
pop pressure on food resources.
Binford agrees with this and says that
demographic stress such as more people
moving into an area will require food
Mark Cohen said that population got so great
acress the world that no natural resources were
left. Where and When?
Southwest Asia-Israel, Jordan, Syria, Trukey, Iraq, and Iran-Fertile
Crescent Natufians-best known southwest asians to cultivate wild grains and
cereal grasses around 12-14,000.
Farming communities emerged in Jericho with subsistence on wheat,
barley, peas, beans, lentils, sheep and goats, pigs, and cattle.
barley, Europe-Mediterranean to Sweden, northwest Russia. Many
agricultural products introduced but became established by 6,000.
East Asia-China, Thailand.
East Domestication of root crops such as yams, around 11,000 years ago.
rice cultivation as early as 9,000 years ago, also pig, dog and chicken.
rice Africa-8,000 years ago, emmer wheat, flax, lentils, chickpeas, sheep
New World North America-domestication of starchy and oily seeds around 4,000
years ago, maize, squash and beans by 1,000 years ago.
South America-manioc, maize, and beans, peanuts, and potatoes
around 6,500 years ago.
around Mesoamerican Food Production
Settlement and Domestication During the 1950s and 1960s there was an increased
effort to study domestication in this area.
effort Teosinte is the ancestor of maize and was
domesticated by 7-5,400 years ago in Balsas,
Guerrero. also domestication of avocados, squash, beans,
Fields would grow all of these together, unlike monocropping that we see today. Tehuacan Archaeological Botanical
MacNeish’s project was run from 1960-1965 and
made a concerted effort to find botanical
remains from arch sites.
remains Early cobs in caves only 2-2.5 cm long.
Controversy concerning the progenitors of maize. It
now clear that maize developed from a wild grass
teosinte. Domestication of teosinte involves a change
from hard seed cases to shallow softer cupules with
elongated glumes. Made the wild teosinte easier to
thresh. Selection for mutated form when wild maize
grew around occupation sites. Differences between the ear of
maize and the ear of teosinte
Teosinte pocesses a fragile ear that breaks easily at
the rachis joint. Maize has developed a non
scattering rachis (seeds do not dispures when
Teosinte has a two ranked ear, maize pocesses a
four or more ranked ear.
Teosintes outer glumes are hard, while maize is soft.
In teosinte the glume covers the seed, while in maize
the seed is exposed.
The maize grain is borne in shallow cupules, while
teosinte is embedded in deep cupules in the rachis.
Maize can produce small or large seeds, while
teosinte is usually small. This is typical of
domesticated plants, producing larger seeds. Téosinte (Zea mays ssp)
Téosinte Domestication of Maize
Photograph of three Guilá Naquitz
archaeological cobs. Two of three
specimens were AMS dated at
5,420 ± 60 (C9, Fig. 1, specimen b)
and 5,410 ± 40 (D10) 14C years B.P.
(6,235 calibrated years B.P.). PNAS | February 13, 2001 | vol. 98 | no. 4 | 2104-2106
2104-2106 Domestication of Maize: Problems
Manglesdorf's hypothesis (first published in 1939)
Manglesdorf's Cultivated maize descended from a now extinct wild podpopcorn.
kernels were individually enclosed in, and protected by, a pod or
chaffy shell Teosinte is a mutation of maize
Name comes from Nahuatl "teocintli" - grain of the gods
Maize's closest relative
maize and annual teosinte have ten pairs of chromosomes with
nearly identical structures
are often 100% inter-fertile
both classified as subspecies of Zea mays
practically indistinguishable morphologically Manglesdorf favors gradual process of natural speciation
of teosinte from primitive maize, which excludes man
from the selective process.
http://www.ku.edu/~hoopes/506/Lectures/Maize.html Domestication of Maize: Problems
Herbert W. Dick (Harvard) excavated at Bat
Cave in 1948 found corn cobs and other remains
charcoal "pooled" for dating
published paper in Scientific American on "oldest ear
of corn" MacNeish and Tehuacan Valley Project recovered 23,000 specimens of corn
worked together with Manglesdorf and Walton Galinat
concluded lower levels had primitive popcorn (a pod
this earliest corn was thought to be wild
this Alternate hypothesis
If maize evolved gradually from teosinte, why have no
intermediates been found?
If teosinte was domesticated for its grains, why have none of the
durable fruitcases of teosinte been found contemporaneous or
predating the earliest archaeological maize?
Given the hardness and concavity of teosinte fruitcases, why
are the glumes of the earliest archaeological maize soft and
thin and cupules relatively shallow?
If teosinte ears became transformed into maize ears, why do
both modern and archaeological maize ears often exhibit
Compared with the gradual evolution documented for all other
cereals, how did maize arise so suddenly, from ancestors
difficult to identify?
Why does maize suddenly appear in the archaeological record? Catastrophic Sexual Transmutation
Teosinte is ancestral to corn, however, teosinte
ear is not ancestral to corn ear.
Key is catastrophic change in plant: Corn is not the result of a step-by-step accumulation
of single-gene mutations, but a gross re-expression of
may have been caused by cold, viruses,
mycoplasmas, fungi, or other pressures.
Barbara McClintock discovered that extracellular
process could trigger changes in chromosomal DNA
in corn. Catastrophe could have been lethal if not for
Population Domestication caused food supplies to become more stable and
More food per acre of land, so can support larger population.
i.e. Paleolithic population=30 million, 2,000 years ago=300 million. Health and Nutrition Not necessarily improve quality of life
Closer contact with people, so easier spread of disease.
Non-variable diet, poorer nutrition.
i.e. increase in dental caries, bone diseases, etc. Increasing Intellectual/Skill Capacity Increase in quantity and type of artifacts.
More sophisticated material culture, innovations in transportation
(wheels), more durable buildings.
(wheels), Increased Social Stratification and Cultural Complexity Shift from egalitarian to stratified societies.
Full-time craft specialists. ...
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- Fall '08