USCpres2008 birds

USCpres2008 birds - Seabird-fisheries Interactions in South...

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Seabird-fisheries Interactions in South Carolina Lisa Wickliffe USGS SC Cooperative Fish & Wildlife Research Unit Upstate Forever Seabirds • Defined as those birds living or making a living in marine environments • Equally at home in water, air, and land which requires unique adaptations • Great diversity • Relative to land birds, seabirds have – Long life (20-60 yrs.) – Deferred maturity (delayed up to 10 yrs.) – Small clutch size – Extended chick-rearing periods (up to 6 months) (Schreiber & Burger 2002) Seabirds • Orders –Pelecaniformes –Charadriiformes –Procellariiformes –Sphenisciformes –Ciconiiformes (excluded) acsedu.com Order 1: Pelecaniformes • Found worldwide • All have throat pouch (gular) used for catching and storing fish • Pelicans, frigatebirds, commerants, • Colonial nesting, young are altricial www.birdingnz.co.nz Order 2: Charadriiformes • Main focus: –Fam i ly Laridae : gulls, terns and skimmers • Shorebirds (plovers, snipes, sandpipers, oystercatchers)- excluded Order 3: Procellariiformes • Albatrosses, Petrels, Shearwaters • Almost exclusively pelagic (feed in open ocean) • Show great philopatry • Breed on predator free islands • 1 egg; monogamous • Vulnerable www.birdingnz.co.nz
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Order 4: Sphenisciformes • Penguins • Southern hemisphere • Monogamous • Flightless divers www.birdingnz.co.nz South Carolina Seabirds ¾ Piscivorous seabirds ¾ Diet mainly consists of pelagic schooling fish ¾ Laughing gulls are generalists, opportunists ¾ Plunge-divers & surfacing seizing South Carolina Seabirds ¾ Colonial nesting seabirds ¾ Nesting starts in mid to late April and goes through August ¾ Larger energetic requirement for adults with chicks Long-term Trends in SC Seabirds '69 '72 '75 '78 '81 '84 '87 '90 '93 '96 '99 '02 '05 '08 Nest count 0 2500 5000 7500 10000 12500 15000 17500 20000 Sandwich Tern Royal Tern Brown Pelican Modified from Jodice et al. (2007) Anthropogenic effects • Oil spills (Exxon Valdez) • Anoxic water through sediments • Contaminants (DDT, PCBs, and flame retardants) • Loss of breeding habitat due to erosion • Disturbance • Fisheries Seabird-fisheries Interactions ¾ Competition between seabirds and fisheries for forage fish (Garthe & Huppop 1998) ¾ Discards as food for seabirds ± Globally abundant ± About 27.5 million tons of discards each year ± European waters ± Lack of research in US ¾ Monitoring & reduction of bycatch related mortality of seabirds ( Melvin et al. 2001)
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This document was uploaded on 11/01/2011 for the course MSCI 210 at South Carolina.

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USCpres2008 birds - Seabird-fisheries Interactions in South...

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