shervette lecture atmospheric and ocean circulation fall08

shervette lecture atmospheric and ocean circulation fall08...

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1 The Atmosphere and the Oceans Outline Seawater Density Solar Energy The Coriolis Effect Heat Budget of the Ocean Oceans, Weather, and Climate Fog Sea Ice Icebergs El Niño - Southern Oscillation Hurricane Floyd September 1999 Air-Sea Interaction Physical processes in the ocean are like weather in the atmosphere All fluids behave in the same way Since water is 1000X more dense than air, oceanic weather systems develop more slowly. ...but last longer. ...than atmospheric systems Seawater Density is primarily a function of salinity and temperature Temperature changes in warm waters have a higher impact on density than changes at low temperatures (see graph below) Solar Energy The Sun supplies essentially all the energy available to Earth Greenhouse gases in the atmosphere capture heat The average temperature on Earth is ca. 15° C (59° F) Would be well below 0 without greenhouse gases Major Greenhouse Gases Water Vapor Carbon Dioxide Methane Nitrous Oxide Ozone Much of the sunlight striking Earth is in the visible and ultraviolet wavelengths - the Earth re-radiates infrared wavelengths Infrared wavelengths are efficiently absorbed by greenhouse gases
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2 The concentration of an important greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide, is increasing at an alarming rate due to man’s activity This may lead to global warming and alterations of climate patterns Atmospheric CO 2 Effect of Atmospheric CO 2 Doubling on Air Temperature over the Next 150 Years ht p:/ www.gfdl.gov/~jps/GFDL_VG_Gal ery.html#Warming Effect of Atmospheric CO 2 Doubling on Ocean and Air Temperature over the Next 150 Years ±²³´µ¶¶¶·¸¹º»·¼½¾ ·¸½¿µÀÁ³ÂµÃľ¸Åµ¸¾»ÅÆǵȻ½ÉÊËÌÍËÎÏ·¸Ã¹
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3 Air-Sea Interaction Solar Energy . ... continued More solar energy is received at the equator due to the angle of the Sun Sunlight intensity per unit area is higher in tropical regions Radiation must pass through greater thickness of atmosphere at high latitudes At the Poles, more energy is reflected because of the low light angle Heat gained at low latitudes is balanced by heat lost at poles Heat flows from equator to the poles Air-Sea Interaction Solar Energy . ... continued Earth’s rotation is inclined to the plane of orbit (ecliptic) by 23.5° The Tropic of Cancer is at 23.5° north of the equator The Tropic of Capricorn is at 23.5° south of the equator The rays of sun falling directly on Earth’s surface (perpendicular) migrate seasonally between the Tropics of Capricorn and Cancer The Arctic and Antarctic Circles are at 66.5° north and south Polar regions are always lighted during summer, dark in winter Air-Sea Interaction Atmospheric Circulation
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4 Air-Sea Interaction The Coriolis Effect Any object travelling horizon- tally along the Earth’s surface for a significant distance and time will veer to the right in the northern hemisphere (left in
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shervette lecture atmospheric and ocean circulation fall08...

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