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Unformatted text preview: 1 CHAPT 2 HISTORY OF OCEANOGRAPHY History of Oceanography History of Oceanography Three Periods in Oceanographic History: 1. ________________________ a. Prehistoric b. Ancient Greeks and Romans The study of the oceans began slowly, more for survival, economic and political reasons than scientific c. Middle Ages 2. _________________________ a. Natural History b. Other Scientific Endeavors 3. _________________________ a. Technological Advances b. Remote Sensing Applications Prehistoric Oceanography Prehistoric Oceanography __________ humans developed barbed spears and harpoons _________ humans used bone ________ and nets Copper fishhooks appeared around 5000 BC Hunter gatherers along the Hunter-gatherers along the seashore and shallow waters Important event: Thag discovers that wood floats and rocks sink Sailing vessels in Egypt as far back as 4000 BC __________ trading across the Mediterranean Sea as early as 1500 BC 2 Greeks thought Thalassa (Mediterranean Sea) was surrounded by land, which in turn was surrounded by a great encircling river called Oceanus. ___________ (Egyptian, 230 BC), using principles you learned in geometry, made first known calculation of Earths circumference: 24,550 mi, which is close to the actual circumference of 25,020 mi. Strab (Roman 25 BC) observed volcanic Ancient Period Ancient Period Strabo (Roman, 25 BC) observed volcanic activity and concluded that land periodically sank and rose, causing the ocean to cover land and then recede again. _____________ (150 AD) produced first World Atlas. Major flaw was that He estimated earths circumference at 29,000 km. This led Columbus to believe he had reached Asia (~1000 years later)! Greek Trading Ship ca. 500 BC Distance = 491 mi Ancestors of Melanesians, Micronesians, and Polynesians spread from southeast Asia to New Guinea and Philippines about 20,000 years ago Mid-Pacific Islands have been colonized for about 2,500 years Hawaii colonized around 450 - 600 AD These islanders are examples of how the application of knowledge of Voyages Of The Oceanian Peoples Voyages Of The Oceanian Peoples how the application of knowledge of the oceans and marine science was used to colonize and commute long distances between a vast number of widely separated islands, with no visible reference points on the water Micronesians used stick charts showing oceanic wave refraction patterns to help them navigate to small atolls over great distances Middle Ages Middle Ages After Ptolemy, intellectual and scientific thought declined for about 1000 years (the Dark Ages) Shipbuilding skills and techniques improved Exploration by Vikings (mostly unrecorded) Norsemen colonized Iceland and Greenland by 900 AD Were the first Europeans to reach North America in 985....
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- Fall '08