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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 8: Net Present Value and Capital Budgeting 8.1 a. Yes , the reduction in the sales of the companys other products, referred to as erosion , and should be treated as an incremental cash flow. These lost sales are included because they are a cost (a revenue reduction) that the firm must bear if it chooses to produce the new product. b. Yes , expenditures on plant and equipment should be treated as incremental cash flows. These are costs of the new product line. However, if these expenditures have already occurred, they are sunk costs and are not included as incremental cash flows. c. No , the research and development costs should not be treated as incremental cash flows. The costs of research and development undertaken on the product during the past 3 years are sunk costs and should not be included in the evaluation of the project. Decisions made and costs incurred in the past cannot be changed. They should not affect the decision to accept or reject the project. d. Yes , the annual CCA expense should be treated as an incremental cash flow. CCA expense must be taken into account when calculating the cash flows related to a given project. While CCA is not a cash expense that directly affects cash flow, it decreases a firms net income and hence, lowers its tax bill for the year. Because of this CCA tax shield , the firm has more cash on hand at the end of the year than it would have had without expensing depreciation. e. No , dividend payments should not be treated as incremental cash flows. A firms decision to pay or not pay dividends is independent of the decision to accept or reject any given investment project. For this reason, it is not an incremental cash flow to a given project. Dividend policy is discussed in more detail in later chapters. f. Yes , the resale value of plant and equipment at the end of a projects life should be treated as an incremental cash flow. The price at which the firm sells the equipment is a cash inflow, and any difference between the book value of the equipment and its sale price will create gains or losses that result in either a tax credit or liability. g. Yes , salary and medical costs for production employees on leave should be treated as incremental cash flows. The salaries of all personnel connected to the project must be included as costs of that project. Thus, the costs of employees who are on leave for a portion of the project life must be included as costs of that project. 8.5 Real interest rate = (1.15 / 1.05) - 1 = 9.52381% NPV A = -$40,000+ $20,000 / 1.0952381 + $15,000 / 1.0952381 2 + $15,000 / 1.0952381 3 = $-40,000 + 18,261 +12,505 +11,417 = 2,183 NPV B = -$50,000+ $10,000 / 1.15 + $20,000 / 1.15 2 + $40,000 / 1.15 3 = -50,000 + 8,696 + 15,123 + 26,301 = $120 Choose project A as it has the highest positive NPV....
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- Fall '08