MCB reading notes - Chapter1 15:38:00 Negative Feedback Loops continuous ongoing process effectors are defending set points again deviations

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Chapter 1 20/09/2009 15:38:00 Negative Feedback Loops continuous ongoing process effectors are defending set points again deviations, because the activity of the effectors is influenced by the effects they produce and because this regulation is in a negative or reverse direction this type of control system is known as NF. Changes from the normal range in either directions and are thus compensated for by reverse changes in effectors Homeostasis A state of dynamic constancy in which conditions are stabilized above and below the set point In order for an internal constancy to be maintained the body must have o Sensory that are able to detect deviations for a set point when detected it must relay info to an integrating center receives information from many different sensors o Relative strengths of different sensory inputs are weighed in the integrating center which responds by either increasing or decreasing the activity of particular effects. Positive Feedback The action of effectors amplifies those changes that stimulated the effectors The effectiveness of NFL is increased by PF mechanisms that amplify the actions of a NF response. Tissue/organ/organ system Cells are the basic units of structure in the body cells that have similar functions are grouped into categories called tissues. Primary tissues: muscle, nerve, epithelial, connective Grouping of primary tissues into anatomical and functional units organs Organ system organs grouped together by common functions Intracellular inside the cell Extracellular outside the cell Both consist primarily of water aqueous
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Separated by the cell membrane surrounding each cell Blood plasma fluid portion of the blood Interstitual fluid fluid that bathes the cell within the organ, communicates freely through blood capillaries Insulin provides a blood lowering of blood glucose (hormone) Beta cells make and release insulin Glucagon stimulates processes in the liver, breakdown of glycogen Alpha cells endocrine cells in the isets of Langerhan of the pancreas o Responsible for synthesizing and secreting the peptide hormone glucagon which raises the glucose in the blood Controlling Blood Glucose the exocrine section of the pancreas pancreatic juice contains digestive enzymes and bicarbonate and is secreted into the small intestine via the pancreatic duct. Liver produces and secrete bile (emulsifier of fat) into the small intestine via the gall bladder and bile ducts o Eating increase in blood glucose prancreatic isets of Langerhans increase of insulin in the blood increase in cellular uptake of glucose blood glucose lowers. o
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This note was uploaded on 11/02/2011 for the course MCB 32 taught by Professor Wurmser during the Fall '07 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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MCB reading notes - Chapter1 15:38:00 Negative Feedback Loops continuous ongoing process effectors are defending set points again deviations

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