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Lecture 21 Pregnancy _ Lactation

Lecture 21 Pregnancy _ Lactation - Lecture 21 Pregnancy...

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Lecture 21: Pregnancy & Lactation 4/19/10 Desired Outcome of Pregnancy & Early Post-Partum Years Healthy mother & infant birth of full term healthy infant baby birth weight 6.5 – 9 lbs normal psychological & physiological development milestones for infant mother's body weight & physical activities return to pre-pregnancy levels Nutrition Before Conception Deficiency related problems develop early in Pregnancy Eg: Neural Tube defects related to inadequate levels of folate effects embryo in 1 st few weeks adequate folate (400 micrograms daily) before conception can reduce the risks Implications: young women who are sexually active need to have high nutrition all the time For a Woman, the healthful diet before consumption includes adequate intakes of all important nutrients having a healthy pre-conception body weight avoiding teratogens : substances that cause birth defects includes alcohol & illegal drugs Avoiding other possible hazards smoking, caffeine, unnecessary medications, herbs & supplements Before Conception A healthful diet & appropriate levels of physical activity before conception promotes optimal weight gains for both mother & developing fetus reduces risk of developing nutrition-related disorders during pregnancy, such as gestational diabetes (part of type II diabetes) & preeclampsia Man's Nutrition before conception is also Important sperm # & motility reduced by alcohol consumption, certain prescription & illegal drugs adequate nutrition keeps immune system strong & promotes fertility Nutrition during pregnancy & risks assoc. with poor nutrition Early stages (weeks 1-2) not very susceptible to toxic agents, except teratogens (folate deficiency will be harmful as well) Weeks 3-6, major structural abnormalities occur (effects of teratogens) Weeks 8-38, physiological defects & minor structural abnormalities Maternal & Fetus Changes Gradual change in tissue types: increase in blood volume, maternal fat stores, uterus & breasts, fetus, placenta, amniotic fluid all account for weight change minimum weight change = 20 lbs 1 st Trimester of Pregnancy 0-13 weeks = 1 st trimester
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(zygote travels through fallopian tube & implants in uterus wall embryo develops organs, limb buds, facial features, placenta embryos extremely vulnerable to teratogens during this time 2 nd Trimester of Pregnancy 14-27 weeks = 2 nd trimester Continued development of organ systems growth from ~ 3 in. to over a foot long by end 3 rd Trimester of Pregnancy 27-40 weeks = trimester
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