Exam III Review

Exam III Review - Lily Van Tongeren-21125596 Exam III...

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Lily Van Tongeren-21125596 Exam III Review Minerals and Bone Health What are the two main functions of bone? 1) provides structure and support in the body for organs such at the lungs and brain and for muscles and their movement. 2) Metabolic functions reservoir for minerals (calcium, phosphrous for ATP, fluoride) that have essential metabolic functions and for blood cells made in the marrow. What are the three ways the body regulates serum calcium levels? 1) increase reabsorption of calcium by the kidneys 2) increase release of calcium from the bone 3) increase absorption of dietary calcium from the intestine that is stimulated by the vitamin D hormone, Calcitrol What is the difference between hyper and hypocalcimia? 1) hypercalcemia a condition marked by an abnormally high concentration of calcium in the blood 2) hypocalcemia a condition characterized by an abnormally low concentration of calcium in the blood. Fill in the blank: Osteoclasts stimulate bone degradation by secreting enzymes and acids which degrade mineral and denature the bone matrix. This releases Ca and P from the mineral crystals increasing Ca and preventing hypocalcemia . If you don’t have adequate Vitamin D , you will only absorb 25% of the calcium you would otherwise absorb. List some good dietary sources of Calcium: Yogurt, skim milk, collard greens, cheese, sardines, kale What is meant by the statement: “The preservation of life takes precedent over bone health?” Falling calcium levels vitamin D will increase bone degradation and release Calcium into the blood so that the calcium levels in the plasma will return to normal. Bone degradation is sacrificed to preserve life. Osteoblasts synthesize proteins that make up bone. Protein makes a fiber network and then calcium and phosphorus can be laid down as crystals to harden the bone. What does this process require? This process requires the essential amino acids, calcium, phosphrous, energy and oxygen. Is the body as sensitive to levels of phosphorous as it is to serum Calcium levels? Why? Excess phosphorus can lead to muscle spasms and convulsions however deficiencies are rare. We are less sensitive to it as most people in the U.S consume almost twice the RDA. What is the role of Magnesium? It is one of the minerals that make up the structure of bone, it is important in the regulation of bone and mineral status. It influences the formation of hydroxyapatite
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crystals through its regulation of calcium balance and its interactions with vitamin D and PTH. Can we consume ATP from food? YES Energy Balance Define positive and negative energy balance. What is the repercussion of each? (+) you consume more energy than you use gain weight (--) you comsume less energy than you lose lose weight In the short term, the body can store energy as glycogen in the liver and muscle. This energy is liberated when exercising or short term fasting. Long term supply of energy is stored as fat in adipose tissue and protein in muscle. In a long-term starvation state, protein in muscle is the only source the body has to make glucose.
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