Exam1Review - NST 10 Introduction to Human Nutrition Departmentof NutritionalSciences Toxicology Universityof California,Berkeley Spring2010 Exam 1

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NST 10 – Introduction to Human Nutrition Department of Nutritional Sciences University of California, Berkeley Spring 2010 Exam 1 Review What is a healthy diet? Name the 4 points discussed in class and give an example of each. o Adequate: Meeting your daily energy needs (calories) o Varied: All food groups needed in a day (six colored bands of pyramid) o Moderate: More nutritionally dense foods than less nutritionally dense (wider base at bottomom of pyramid) o Balanced: Using all of the food groups to get the proper proportion of nutrients What was the impetus for the creation of National Organic Program (NOP)? o Organic foods = fad o Organic food were becoming big bigness time for fed regulation How does a food product or a farm receive a federal organization certification that it is organic? o 95% of ingredients used must be certified organic FILL IN THE CHART STUDY DESIGN DESCRIPTION LIMITATION EXAMPLE Epidemiologic Observations of population’s diets, health, disease. *Seek to determine distribution and determinants of disease and health Correlation does not = causation Correlation between reduced risks of certain cancer and consumption of plant foods Cohort Study (type of Epidemiologic study) Study a selected group over time, measure diet, health, environment. How representative is the cohort? Compliance? Cohort of children living near a factory followed from birth to age ten (exposed to lead, look at calcium intake in relation to BLL) Clinical Trials Researchers ask people to follow defined diets, take pills, or undergo medical procedures, then measure health status. # of people, compliance with protocol, measurement of “health” 50 preg women from the factory town with high BLL get 1000 mg Calcium supplements and 50 get a placebo (sugar pill). Reduce
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BLL? Animal Studies In vivo: Can control for diet, environment, genetics, diseases Can use many animals, insects, bacteria In vitro: Use bacteria, cell or tissue culture, defined culture conditions Can use human cells, genetic techniques In vivo: Not human, so human correlation may be difficult to ascertain. In vitro: Even less direct as outside organism (less correlation than vivo) Conducted prior to human studies. Test to see if a supplement has any effect on development fetus of animal. Digestion and Absorption 1. List the primary organs involved in digestion. Mouth esophagus stomach SI LI *Most of digestion and absorption occurs in small intestine 2. What are the accessory organs for digestion? Gallbladder, Pancreas, Liver Gallbladder – stores and secretes bile that emulsifies fats – enhances digestion and absorption of fats Pancreas – produces, stores and secretes digestive enzymes Liver – produces bile and regulates blood nutrients. Largest digestive organ, one of the most important organs in the body performing 500 discrete functions 3. Fill in the blanks. Food that is broken down and moist is called a ________ bolus. Once the ______
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This note was uploaded on 11/02/2011 for the course NST 10 taught by Professor Amy during the Spring '08 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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Exam1Review - NST 10 Introduction to Human Nutrition Departmentof NutritionalSciences Toxicology Universityof California,Berkeley Spring2010 Exam 1

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