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Chapter_4_energybalance - Atmosphere and Surface Energy...

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Atmosphere and Surface Energy balance
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Phoenix 1989 Phoenix 2009
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Transformation of Phoenix Urbanization Land surface has become darker and more impervious to water Anthropogenic land use change has altered the surface energy balance 3
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What is a typical temperature difference between Phoneix urban and rural areas? A. There is no difference B. Urban areas are 2-4°C warmer C. Urban areas are 2-4°C colder D. Urban areas are 7-11°C warmer E. Urban areas are 7-11°C colder 4
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Insolation at Earth’s Surface
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Energy Pathways
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Basic Processes Radiation Absorption Reflection Scattering 7 radiation
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8 Shorter wavelengths are more easily scattered
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Who is hottest? Luke or Dart 9
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Albedo Albedo is a term that quantify the reflectivity of a surface. A surface with high albedo reflect a lot of radiation relative to how much it received. 10 Low Albedo High Albedo
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Albedo
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Clouds and Albedo 1. Reflect 2. Scatter 1. Absorb 2. Radiate
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Heat Transfer in Earth Systems Conduction (gases, liquids, solids) Molecule-to-molecule transfer As a molecules heats up they vibrate and produce motion (heat) in neighboring molecules Convection (gases, liquids) Energy transferred by movement Advection (gases, liquids) Horizontally dominant movement
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Heat Transfer
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Heat transfer in the earth system 15 Conduction (gases, liquids, solids) Surface energy budget Soil temperatures Different materials have different conductivity Temperature differences between land and ocean Convection (gases, liquids) Atmospheric and ocean circulation Weather Advection (gases, liquids) Wind
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Energy Balance in the Troposphere The Greenhouse Effect and Atmospheric Warming Clouds and Earth’s “Greenhouse” Earth–Atmosphere Radiation Balance
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Greenhouse effect Earth surface would be much colder without the greenhouse effect.
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