Ambient air quality sampling locations in the
DKI Jakarta area.
Transportation is the main source of ambient air pollution in Jakarta
, which has 10 million
people. It is larger than any other municipality in Indonesia with 15,000 people per square
According to the Statistic Central Agency
, the number of vehicles in Jakarta in 2003
was 3.4 million motorcycles, 1.99 million passenger cars, 467,000 trucks, and 392,000 buses.
Meanwhile, oil fuel consumption increased. In 2003, oil fuel use was 68 percent of total energy
consumption. In 2004–2005, the
demand for gasoline in Jakarta rose, resulting in increased air
. Ambient air pollution has a significant impact on the health and economic sectors.
Health care costs increase by US$3.8 million per year.
On average, people have only 18 "good
air" days in a year.
In 2004, 46 percent of all illness cases in Jakarta were respiratory related.
In June 2006, the Center for Health and Status Ecology Research and Development, National
Institute of Health Research and Development, Ministry of Health, conducted research on this
pollution. The aim of the study was to measure pollutant concentration, including TSP, nitrogen
oxide, and lead. The measurements were conducted at 25 sampling points in five cities—West
Jakarta, North Jakarta, Central Jakarta, East Jakarta, and South Jakarta. TSP was measured using
a high-volume sampler, and nitrogen oxide was measured using a gas sampler. Lead
concentration was measured using the atomic absorption spectrum. Sampling locations were
chosen based on the density of vehicle traffic, and the measurement period was 24 hours at each
sampling point. The sampling locations were recorded in GPS and moved to an attribute table to