air pollution in indonesia

air pollution in indonesia - In chapter 16, I learn about...

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In chapter 16, I learn about public goods and common resources, and in this paper I will be more focus on touching a common resource. A common resource is non-excludable and rival in consumption. It means that there is no other person who can stop me from consuming the good, and more consumption by me means less of the good available for you. Some examples of common resources are clean air and water as well as the diversity of animal and plant species on the planet (biodiversity). In each of these cases, the fact that the good, though rival in consumption, is nonexcludable poses a serious problem. GIS and GPS Help Isolate Problem Areas Addressing Ambient Air Pollution in Jakarta, Indonesia Air pollution is a problem in big cities, including Jakarta province , the capital of the Republic of Indonesia . The pollution is due to increased human activities, population growth, the increasing number of industries, and transportatio n. Monitoring of ambient air quality parameters, such as total suspended particles (TSP), sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, carbon monitrogen oxideide, hydrocarbons, and lead, in Jakarta indicates that the condition is concerning.
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Ambient air quality sampling locations in the DKI Jakarta area. Transportation is the main source of ambient air pollution in Jakarta , which has 10 million people. It is larger than any other municipality in Indonesia with 15,000 people per square kilometer. According to the Statistic Central Agency , the number of vehicles in Jakarta in 2003 was 3.4 million motorcycles, 1.99 million passenger cars, 467,000 trucks, and 392,000 buses. Meanwhile, oil fuel consumption increased. In 2003, oil fuel use was 68 percent of total energy consumption. In 2004–2005, the demand for gasoline in Jakarta rose, resulting in increased air pollution . Ambient air pollution has a significant impact on the health and economic sectors. Health care costs increase by US$3.8 million per year. On average, people have only 18 "good air" days in a year. In 2004, 46 percent of all illness cases in Jakarta were respiratory related. Recent Measurements In June 2006, the Center for Health and Status Ecology Research and Development, National Institute of Health Research and Development, Ministry of Health, conducted research on this pollution. The aim of the study was to measure pollutant concentration, including TSP, nitrogen oxide, and lead. The measurements were conducted at 25 sampling points in five cities—West Jakarta, North Jakarta, Central Jakarta, East Jakarta, and South Jakarta. TSP was measured using a high-volume sampler, and nitrogen oxide was measured using a gas sampler. Lead concentration was measured using the atomic absorption spectrum. Sampling locations were chosen based on the density of vehicle traffic, and the measurement period was 24 hours at each sampling point. The sampling locations were recorded in GPS and moved to an attribute table to
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air pollution in indonesia - In chapter 16, I learn about...

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