120B_Lecture_2

120B_Lecture_2 - Lecture 2: Bits of Morphology Ling...

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Lecture 2 : Bits of Morphology Ling 120 B—Moulton 26 September 2011 1 Diagnosing category with morphemes ( 1 ) a. DETERMINER VERB b. VERB VERB: ADVERB c. DETERMINER NOUN: ADJECTIVE d. VERB NOUN: PREPOSITION e. PREPOSITION NOUN: DETERMINER f. TENSE PREPOSITION: VERB Substitution classes do not just have to look at surrounding words. Sur- rounding morphemes diagnose substitution classes too. ( 2 ) { write, read, subscribe, lecture } = VERB a. -able b. -s c. -ing d. un- ( 3 ) { happy, sad, black, blue } = ADJECTIVE a. -ness b. -ly c. un- ( 4 ) NOUN a. -s b. -ness c. -ship 1
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Keir Moulton 120 B Lecture 2 : Morphology ( 5 ) VERB a. -ize b. -ate Affixes (being bound morphemes) are not complete without a comple- ment . And affixes are often ‘picky’ about what kinds classes of words they combine with. We will say they c-select their complement. ( 6 ) C-selection (‘category-selection’) The requirements that a morpheme (for instance, an affix) has for the category it combines with. The requirements are part of its lexical entry. What else do we need to know about a morpheme? ( 7 ) Lexical entries. -s suffix c-selects V to form an N 3 rd person, sg present tense -s suffix c-selects N to form an N plural dog free Canis lupus familiaris -ness suffix c-selects A to form an N A-ness denotes a state of A Some affixes (many) are particularly picky about some details of their complements: e.g. in wanting latinate bases of a certain form (see text). Here’s some others: ( 8 ) -en a. gold-en b. wax-en c. wood-en 2
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Keir Moulton 120 B Lecture 2 : Morphology d. *manganes-en e. *resin-en f. *sycamor-en 2 Review: Practice and Tree Drawing Draw these: ( 9 ) a. unloved b. demagnetizes c. Unlockable (two structures)
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120B_Lecture_2 - Lecture 2: Bits of Morphology Ling...

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