ISAT_2011_Ch_1-2

ISAT_2011_Ch_1-2 - An Introduction to Syntactic Analysis...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–6. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
An Introduction to Syntactic Analysis and Theory Hilda Koopman Dominique Sportiche Edward Stabler August 2011 Prepublication Version Please do not quote or circulate without permission
Image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 2
1 Introduction 1 1.1 Where to start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.2 What this book is and is not, and how to use it . . . . . . . . . 6 2 Morphology: Starting with words 9 2.1 Words come in categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2.1.1 A ffi xes are often category and sub-category specific . . . . 12 2.1.2 Syntactic contexts sensitive to the same categories . . . . 16 2.1.3 Modifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 2.1.4 Complementary distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 2.2 Words are made of smaller units: morphemes . . . . . . . . . . . 19 2.3 Morphemes combine in regular ways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 2.3.1 Compositionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 2.3.2 A ffi xation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 2.3.3 Word structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 2.3.4 Selection and locality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 2.3.5 Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 2.3.6 The categorial status of a ffi xes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 2.4 Apparent exceptions to the RHHR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 2.4.1 Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 2.5 Morphological Atoms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 2.6 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 2.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 2.7.1 What to remember . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 2.7.2 Puzzles and Preview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 2.8 Further readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 3 Syntactic analysis introduced 45 3.1 Word order . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 3.2 Constituency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 3.3 Substitution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 3.4 Ellipsis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 3.5 Coordination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 3.5.1 Structure of Coordinated Constituents . . . . . . . . . . . 73 3.5.2 Right Node Raising and Gapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Right Node raising . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Gapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 iii
Image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
iv 3.6 Movement and other distortions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 3.6.1 Topicalization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 3.6.2 Cleft constructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 3.6.3 Pseudoclefts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 3.7 Some more complex distortion experiments, briefly . . . . . . . . 84 3.7.1 Wh-movement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 3.7.2 Heavy constituent shift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 3.8 Some more practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 3.9 Some other evidence of constituency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 3.9.1 Perception of click position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 3.9.2 Memorization errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 3.9.3 Neurophysiological correlates of syntactic analysis. . . . . 87 3.10 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 3.10.1 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 3.10.2 Beyond English . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 3.10.3 What to Remember . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 3.10.4 Puzzles and Preview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 4 Clauses 93 4.1 Full clauses: CPs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 4.2 Tense Phrase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 4.3 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 4.3.1 Some general results so far . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 4.3.2 Some results for English . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 4.3.3 What to remember . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 4.3.4 Puzzles and Previews . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 5 Other phrases: a first glance 111 5.1 Verb phrases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 General di ff erences between complements and adjuncts . . 115 5.1.1 V complements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 5.1.2 V adjunct compatibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 5.2 Determiner Phrases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 5.3 Noun phrases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 5.4 Adjective phrases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 5.5 Prepositional phrases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 5.6 Ways to talk about tree geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 5.7 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 5.7.1 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 5.7.2 What to Remember . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 5.7.3 Puzzles and Previews . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
Image of page 4
v 6 X-bar theory, and the format of lexical entries 133 6.1 Review: The model of morphology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 6.2 Building a model of syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 6.3 Headedness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 6.4 Internal organization of constituents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 6.5 Some consequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 6.5.1 Silent heads: D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 6.5.2 Silent heads: T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 6.5.3 Silent heads: C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 6.6 Cross categorial symmetries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 6.7 Subjects Across Categories: Small clauses . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 6.8 Lexical entries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 6.8.1 A short primer on thematic relations . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 6.8.2 The general format of lexical entries . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 6.8.3 More lexical entries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 More verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 Adjectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 Complementizers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 Tense: infinitive to , present, past, future . . . . . . . . . . 157 6.9 The projection principle and locality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 6.10 Crosslinguistic variation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 6.11 Conclusion: The model of syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 6.11.1 What to remember . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 6.11.2 Puzzles and Preview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 6.12 Further readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 6.13 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 7 Binding and the hierarchical nature of phrase structure 169 7.1 Anaphors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 7.1.1
Image of page 5

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 6
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern