ISAT_2011_Ch_1-2

ISAT_2011_Ch_1-2 - An Introduction to Syntactic Analysis...

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An Introduction to Syntactic Analysis and Theory Hilda Koopman Dominique Sportiche Edward Stabler August 2011 Prepublication Version Please do not quote or circulate without permission
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1I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 1.1 Where to start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.2 What this book is and is not, and how to use it . . . . . . . . . 6 2M o r p h o l o g y :S t a r t i n gw i t hw o r d s 9 2.1 Words come in categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2.1.1 A f xes are often category and sub-category speciFc . . . . 12 2.1.2 Syntactic contexts sensitive to the same categories . . . . 16 2.1.3 ModiFers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 2.1.4 Complementary distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 2.2 Words are made of smaller units: morphemes . . . . . . . . . . . 19 2.3 Morphemes combine in regular ways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 2.3.1 Compositionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 2.3.2 A f xation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 2.3.3 Word structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 2.3.4 Selection and locality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 2.3.5 Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 2.3.6 The categorial status of a f xes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 2.4 Apparent exceptions to the RHHR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 2.4.1 Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 2.5 Morphological Atoms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 2.6 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 2.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 2.7.1 What to remember . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 2.7.2 Puzzles and Preview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 2.8 ±urther readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 3S y n t a c t i ca n a l y s i s i n t r o d u c e d 45 3.1 Word order . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 3.2 Constituency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 3.3 Substitution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 3.4 Ellipsis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 3.5 Coordination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 3.5.1 Structure of Coordinated Constituents . . . . . . . . . . . 73 3.5.2 Right Node Raising and Gapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Right Node raising . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Gapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 iii
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iv 3.6 Movement and other distortions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 3.6.1 Topicalization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 3.6.2 Cleft constructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 3.6.3 Pseudoclefts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 3.7 Some more complex distortion experiments, brieFy . . . . . . . . 84 3.7.1 Wh-movement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 3.7.2 Heavy constituent shift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 3.8 Some more practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 3.9 Some other evidence of constituency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 3.9.1 Perception of click position. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 3.9.2 Memorization errors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 3.9.3 Neurophysiological correlates of syntactic analysis. . . . . 87 3.10 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 3.10.1 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 3.10.2 Beyond English . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 3.10.3 What to Remember . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 3.10.4 Puzzles and Preview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 4C l a u s e s 93 4.1 ±ull clauses: CPs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 4.2 Tense Phrase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 4.3 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 4.3.1 Some general results so far . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 4.3.2 Some results for English . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 4.3.3 What to remember . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 4.3.4 Puzzles and Previews . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 5O t h e rp h r a s e s :af r s tg l a n c e 111 5.1 Verb phrases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 General di f erences between complements and adjuncts . . 115 5.1.1 V complements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 5.1.2 V adjunct compatibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 5.2 Determiner Phrases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 5.3 Noun phrases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 5.4 Adjective phrases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 5.5 Prepositional phrases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 5.6 Ways to talk about tree geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 5.7 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 5.7.1 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 5.7.2 What to Remember . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 5.7.3 Puzzles and Previews . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
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v 6X - b a r t h e o r y ,a n d t h e f o rm a to f l e x i c a l e n t r i e s 1 3 3 6.1 Review: The model of morphology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 6.2 Building a model of syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 6.3 Headedness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 6.4 Internal organization of constituents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 6.5 Some consequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 6.5.1 Silent heads: D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 6.5.2 Silent heads: T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 6.5.3 Silent heads: C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 6.6 Cross categorial symmetries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 6.7 Subjects Across Categories: Small clauses . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 6.8 Lexical entries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 6.8.1 A short primer on thematic relations . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 6.8.2 The general format of lexical entries . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 6.8.3 More lexical entries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 More verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 Adjectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 Complementizers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 Tense: inFnitive to ,present ,past ,future. . . . . . . . . . 157 6.9 The projection principle and locality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 6.10 Crosslinguistic variation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 6.11 Conclusion: The model of syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 6.11.1 What to remember . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 6.11.2 Puzzles and Preview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 6.12 ±urther readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 6.13 Exercises
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ISAT_2011_Ch_1-2 - An Introduction to Syntactic Analysis...

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