ISAT_2011_Ch_4

ISAT_2011_Ch_4 - 4 Clauses We now examine the structure of...

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4 Clauses We now examine the structure of various types of constituents in more detail, beginning with “clauses”: sentence-like structures that are commonly described as having a “subject” and a “predicate.” Through the tests that we used to detect constituency, we have established the existence of all sorts of higher order units in sentences, units larger than single words. We have labelled some of these DPs, PPs or VPs etc. .. To a certain extent this is justiFed. Just as we called N all the words or morphemes sharing some properties (e.g. the ability to be put in the plural), it seems legitimate to call by the same name, DP, anything that can be replacedbya pronoun such as she , he or it . In fact, it is di f cult to fail to see that such labels are related to word level categories - DP to D, VP to V, PP to P etc. Yet, we have not o F ered any justiFcation for the choice of particular names: would it have made sense to call what we call DPs VPs instead? As we will see the answer is negative. In this chapter we will discuss this question by examining various types of clauses and clausal complements. The notions of head, sister and selection introduced in chapter 2 will play an important role, so this may be a good time to review these notions in chapter 2. 4.1 Full clauses: CPs We have an informal understanding of what a sentence is. Here are some exam- ples: (1) You will see this (2) The girl will put a picture on your desk (3) Mary reads mysteries (4) The visitors will leave (5) John is snoring (6) The visiting team won the race 93
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94 4. CLAUSES These sentences are all more or less constructed like the frst one ,o rth e second one. As we saw in the previous chapter, they have the Following (ap- proximate) structure: (7) TP DP You T’ will VP V see DP this (8) TP DP The girl T’ will VP V put DP a picture PP on your desk Interestingly, these sentences can occur as subordinate clauses, that is as part oF a larger sentence as below (and this is another, important case oF syntactic recursion): (9) you will see [that the girl will put a picture on your desk] (10) I doubt [that Mary reads mysteries] (11) He said [that the visitors will leave] (12) The Fact [that John is snoring] is inFormative (13) [That the visiting team won the race] could surprise them As we will see shortly, it is easy enough to identiFy these bracketed strings as constituents with the help oF constituency tests. We will begin with investigating the constituent we call that CPs(short For C(omplementizer) P(hrase)). These are phrases that contain a C like the that occurring in (9), which are Followed by the constituent which we called TP (a T(ense) P(hrase)). The name CP evokes some connection with C, but we have not yet seen why this is a good name For this constituent. The frst thing to do is to run constituency tests.
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4.1. FULL CLAUSES: CPS 95 IMPORTANT: Practice It is a good idea to practice constituent tests whenever there is a claim that something is a constituent. In the present case, there is a new testwecanuse : so or this or that replacement. Thus we have the following pairs preserving both
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ISAT_2011_Ch_4 - 4 Clauses We now examine the structure of...

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