ISAT_2011_Ch_6 - Draft: do not circulate without permission...

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Draft: do not circulate without permission 6 X-bar theory, and the format of lexical entries 6.1 Review: The model of morphology We start out with the model of morphology discussed in chapter 2, and use it to raise speciFc and general questions about the model of syntactic organiza- tion. ±undamentally, morphological entities arise as the output of a combinatory system comprising atoms and rules of combination. 1. the atoms of morphology are morphemes. Morphemes were deFned as the simplest meaningful units, (“semantic and grammatical atoms” ). They are classiFed in categories. Morphemes have intrinsic properties, speciFed in their lexical entries, the collection of which is the Lexicon . ±or a given morpheme, these properties include: a. its category b. the kind of elements it selects c. its contribution to meaning d. its phonological shape (i.e. whether and whether it is pronounced) e. its bound or free nature (also a phonological property) 2. These atoms (the morphemes) can be assembled into complexes (molecules). These molecules have an internal structure that can be represented by la- beled trees (with lines that do not cross). 3. Molecules and atoms can be further compounded to form still larger entities representable by labeled trees. 4. We call the operation of combination Merge .M e r g ec a nb e s e e na sa function mapping n-tuples of trees (a set of trees) into a new or derived tree. 133
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Draft: do not circulate without permission 134 6. X-BAR THEORY, AND THE FORMAT OF LEXICAL ENTRIES 5. Well formed trees - the output of the Merge operation, arise as a result of the interaction between the following properties: a. Lexical properties of individual atoms determine the environments in which they can occur. b. Locality: If an atom selects an element. It acts as a head. This head must have this element or a molecule headed by this element as sister. Selection is local in the sense that it is restricted to operate under sisterhood. c. Binary branching : In morphological trees, a mother node has at most two daughters. In other word Merge is a binary function: it is restricted to merging two trees into a new one. d. Right hand head rule (RHHR): the head of a morphological con- stituent is (normally) the right daughter of this constituent. 1 Note that the common sense notion of “word” does not include compounds and certain other sorts of complexes, which linguistic investigation reveals to be of the same sort as their simpler variants. For example, the complex noun compound bull dog park has essentially the same morphological and syntactic properties as the morpheme park does – it is a noun. We call these categories N, V, A, P, D, C, Adv, T, Q, . . .“word level” categories. All these component interact to determine morphological structures, as in- dicated by this diagram: 1 The relation between hierarchical structure and head positioning is an open question.
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This note was uploaded on 11/02/2011 for the course LING 120b taught by Professor Moulton during the Fall '11 term at UCLA.

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ISAT_2011_Ch_6 - Draft: do not circulate without permission...

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