final exam review 2

final exam review 2 - Exam I Material Important concepts...

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Exam I Material Important concepts Sociology: the scientific study of social interaction and social organization. Social structure: the interweaving of people’s interactions and relationships in more or less recurrent and stable patterns. Social relationship: stable, recurrent pattern of interaction. Interaction: mutual influence through exchange or communication. Concept: an idea or mental picture of a group or class of objects formed by combining all their aspects. Variable: a concept that can take on different values; the term that scientists apply to something they think influences (or is influenced by) something else. Hypothesis: a proposition that can be tested to determine its validity. Correlation: a change in one variable associated with a change in another variable. Independent variable: the variable that causes an effect in an experimental setting. Dependent variable: the variable that is affected in an experimental setting. Spurious correlation: the apparent relationship between two variables produced by a third variable that influences the original variables. Observation: a scientific method of research that can take two forms- 1) unobtrusive observation and 2) participant observation. Experiment: a technique in which researchers work with two groups that are identical in all relevant respects. They introduce a change in one group, but not in the other group. The procedure permits researchers to test the effects of an independent variabLe on a dependent variable. Survey: a method for gathering data on people’s beliefs, values, attitudes, perceptions, motivations, and feelings. The data can be derived from interviews or questionnaires. Self-conception: an overriding view of ourselves; a sense of self through time. Attitude: an element acquired by peopLe essential for effective participation in society; a settled way of thinking or feeling about someone or something. typically one that is reflected in a person’s behavior. Sociological imagination: term coined by C. Wright Mills describing the ability to connect seemingly impersonal and remote historical forces to the incidents of an individual’s life; the ability to see our private experiences and personal difficuLties as entwined with the structural arrangements of our society and the historical times in which we live. Ideal type: concept constructed by sociologists to portray the principal characteristics of something they want to study. Social facts: those aspects of social life that cannot be explained in terms of the biological or mental characteristics of the individual. People experience the social fact as external to themselves in the sense that it has an independent reality and forms a part if their objective environment. Culture: the social heritage of a people; those learned patterns for thinking, feeling, and
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final exam review 2 - Exam I Material Important concepts...

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