15 metabolism 118 - Biology 118 14. METABOLISM THE MAIN...

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Biology 118 14. METABOLISM THE MAIN FUNCTIONS : incoming nutrients can used by cells either 1) as fuel for the generation of ATP or 2) as building materials (cellular repair, maintentance and growth). METABOLIC PATHWAYS : a metabolic pathway is a series of enzymes that convert a substrate in a step-wise fashion, passing each subsequent product to the next enzyme in the pathway. The two main pathways we are interested in are glycolysis and the TCA cycle. Glycolysis : glucose is converted to pyruvate in 10 steps. The enzymes that carry out glycolysis are located in the cell cytosol. Glucose, a 6-carbon sugar, is ultimately turned into two pyruvates, 3-carbons each. Glycolysis does not require oxygen to run. A little bit of ATP is produced. TCA cycle : a series of steps converts pyruvate and degrades it, carbon by carbon. The enzymes that carry out the TCA cycle are located in the mitochondria. As carbons are liberated, they bind to oxygen to produce CO
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15 metabolism 118 - Biology 118 14. METABOLISM THE MAIN...

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