Study questions - Biology 118 STUDY QUESTIONS FOR TESTS...

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Biology 118 STUDY QUESTIONS FOR TESTS NOTE: you are responsible for all material covered in lecture. Homeostasis: 1. What is homeostasis? What does it accomplish and how does it work? 2. What is a negative feedback loop? Give an example. 3. What is a positive feedback loop? Give an example. 4. What are the levels of biological organization? Atoms and inorganic chemistry: 5. What are the four most abundant elements in the human body, and why are they the most abundant? 6. Name the particles that make up an atom. 7. What is an electron shell, and how does this contribute an atom’s reactivity? (i.e., why is carbon reactive, while neon is inert?) 8. What is covalent bonding? Name two molecules that are held together by covalent bonding. 9. What is an ion? 10. What is ionic bonding? Name a molecule that is held together by ionic bonding. 11. What are hydrogen bonds? 12. Why is water a polar molecule? How does this polarity contribute to water’s surface tension, and its ability to dissolve substances like salt and sugar? Why can’t water dissolve lipids or oils? 13. What is an electrolyte? Name an example. 14. What is an amphipathic molecule? What makes it amphipathic? Name an example. 15. What is an acid? What is a base? Name examples of both. 16. Understand the pH scale. Organic molecules: 17. What are carbohydrates? Give an example of a monosaccharide, a disaccharide, and a polysaccharide. 18. What is a fatty acid? What’s the difference between a saturated and an unsaturated fatty acid? 19. What is a triglyceride? What is a steroid? What is a phospholipid? Name a physiological role for each of these types of lipids. 20. What is a protein? What are the physiological roles of proteins? Proteins fold into specific three-dimensional conformations – how do they do this? Why is it important that they do? What physical factors can affect protein folding? 21. What are nucleic acids? How does RNA differ from DNA? What is the overall function of these two nucleic acids? 22. What is ATP? How does ATP store energy? How can ATP provide energy, and be ‘recycled’? Cells and membranes (or, plasma membranes): 23. Name four important roles of the cell membrane. 24. What are the three major components of membranes? 25. Why do phospholipids spontaneously form bilayers in water? Is the bilayer selectively permeable? How? 26. What does cholesterol contribute to the membrane? 27. Membrane proteins play many roles – name them, and give an example of each. 28. Transport across the membrane can be passive or active – what is the difference between the two? 29. What is diffusion? How does a cell use diffusion to transport materials across the membrane? 30. Describe facilitated diffusion, and name an example. 31.
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This note was uploaded on 11/02/2011 for the course BIO 118 taught by Professor Bilgen during the Winter '08 term at University of Washington.

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Study questions - Biology 118 STUDY QUESTIONS FOR TESTS...

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