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Property - Hobbes,Locke,Rousseau ECON205W Summer2006...

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    1 Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau ECON 205W Summer 2006 Prof. Cunningham
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2 Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) Personal Background Most Important Writings: The Elements of Law  (1640) De Cive  ( The Citizen , 1642) Leviathan  (1651) Overall Objectives: To put moral and political philosophy on a scientific  basis Contribute to the stability, peace, and welfare of  mankind
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3 Approach Felt that earlier thinkers (excluding Machiavelli and  certain others) had failed because they attempted to  base their theories of society on mankind’s highest  aspirations. Created a code of natural law as morally binding and  determining the purpose of society. Separated his notion of natural law from human  perfection. Develops a psychology of human passions or interests.
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4 Approach (2) Believed he had uncovered the basis of  human behavior and human nature. Used  these as assumptions to build his theory. Believes people have competing  interests, and this has implications. The “State of Nature.”
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5 Implications To prevent chaos, society, though political and  economic organization use the force and  coercion to hold society together. People ought to be willing to give up the same  rights as they expect others to give up, and out  to be satisfied with just as much liberty with  respect to others as others have with respect to  them. Agreement to this by the members of society  forms  the social contract .
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6 Social Contract The social contract is not between the citizens  and the ruling power. It is a contract citizens make with each other  to accept the rule of central authority.  The minority accepts the majority decision. A society so united forms a single body, a  commonwealth, a  leviathan.
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7 Social Contract (2) The ruler is the absolute authority. Parts of the social contract process. Validity of the contact. The contract is binding only if its purpose  is fulfilled—i.e., that the citizens are  secure.
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8 The Sovereign and Citizens Rights of the sovereign: Enforcement of Law Legislative power Judicial power Sovereign is not subject to the laws. Citizens retain certain “inalienable rights”  or “retained rights”
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9 Entitlement Theory Distributive justice.
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