wh2 ch.22 - World History Reading Notes Chapter 22...

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World History Reading Notes Chapter 22: Transoceanic Encounters and Global Connections Vasco da Gama’s Spicy Voyage o Sailed from Portugal to India to exchange gold, pearls, wool textiles, iron, etc for pepper and spices. o It opened up direct maritime trade between Europe and Asian peoples o Cross-cultural interactions such as these have caused historical developments. Mass migration, imperial expansion, and long-distance trade has influenced many societies As a result, Buddhism, Islam, and Christianity have spread o After 1500: cross-cultural interactions have taken place on a much larger scale Europeans linked the lands and people of the eastern hemisphere, western hemisphere and Oceania. o Due to traveling regularly; Europeans increased their power, wealth, and influence. After 1500; Europeans much more prominent Establishment of global trade networks of transportation, communication, and exchange ensured interactions between world’s people would continue and intensify The Exploration of the World’s Oceans o 1400-1800: Europeans launched series of exploratory voyages very expensive in cost to launch the dividends were large pay allowed them to chart the oceans and develop accurate understanding of world geography o Motives: Search for basic resources and lands suitable for cultivation of cash crops Desire to establish new trade routes to Asian markets Desire to expand the influence of Christianity o Portuguese Exploration Were the most prominent in the search for fresh resources Ventured into Atlantic seeking fish, seals, whales, timber, and land where they could grow wheat Discovered uninhabited Azores and Madeiras Islands Demand for sugar was increasing; prospect to make sugar plantations was tempting Continuing Portuguese voyages led to establishment of plantations of more South Atlantic Islands o Lure of Trade Better than getting fresh resources was the desire to establish maritime trade routes to Asian markets Italian merchants purchased Asian goods through Muslim intermediates and distributed them to W.Europe but the prices were high and Europeans sought larger quantities of Asian goods, especially spices
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Wealthy Europeans wanted Indian pepper and Chinese ginger (expensive necessities) Get rid of Muslim intermediates new trade routes and increased quantities of spices and other Asian goods enormous profits African trade was also alluring Gold was especially important because it was the form of payment from west Africa was Europe’s principal payment for Asian goods o Missionary Effects Christianity is a missionary religion New Testament urged Christians to spread their faith throughout the world o Usually taking peaceful forms o 11 th century west Europeans launched a series of crusades and holy wars against Muslims, the Mediterranean Islands, and Iberia Ended in 1492 Goal of spreading Christianity became a powerful justification and
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wh2 ch.22 - World History Reading Notes Chapter 22...

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