WH2 Ch.23 - Chapter 23: The Transformation of Europe MARTIN...

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Chapter 23: The Transformation of Europe MARTIN LUTHER* o 1517- German monk challenged the Catholic Church he denounced the church’s type of pardon that excused individuals from doing penance for their sins (indulgences) Luther thought indulgences were a sign of greed, hypocrisy, and moral rot. he despised church authorities disputed indulgences in a document called Ninety-five Theses Luther’s view galvanized opinions of many who resented the power of the Roman Catholic Church o 1520- Pope Leo X excommunicated the monk o His challenge held enormous religious and political implications o He still considered himself Christian o started the Protestant Reformation which shattered the unity of western Christendom o He moved beyond the issue of indulgences to attacking the Church for a wide range of issues from abuses and calling for a reform. o His works drew enthusiastic support and fueled a movement of reform in the church Henry VIII o came into conflict with the pope because he would not allow King Henry to divorce his wife who couldn’t produce him a male heir o severed relations with the Catholic church and made himself head of the Anglican church o Henry reined over this but little changed theologically o His successors replaced Catholicism with Protestant doctrines o By1560, England had permanently left the Roman Catholic Church John Calvin o French lawyer who in 1530’s converted to Protestant Christianity o French monarchy suppressed Protestants so he slipped into Geneva Switzerland and organized a Protestant community there imposed a strict code of morality and discipline on the city o Composed an influential treatise, Institutes of the Christian Religion that codified Protestant teachings o Genevan community was also a missionary center o Calvinist missionaries were most active in France established churched along reformed Protestant line Catholic Reformation o partly in response to the Protestant Reformation success o sought to define points of doctrine to distinguish Roman Catholics from Protestant churches Council of Trent
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o One of 2 institutions important in defining the Catholic Reformation o An assembly of bishops, cardinals, and other high church officials who met between 1545 and 1563 to address matters of reform and doctrine. Defined elements of theology in detail Recognized that abuses have alienated people from the Roman church; took steps to reform it. o Demanded that church authorities observe strict moral standards and required them to establish schools/seminaries in their districts to prepare priests properly St. Ignatius Loyola o Founder of Society of Jesus o A Basque nobleman/soldier who after a military accident decided to devote his energy into religious work. Society of Jesus
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This note was uploaded on 11/03/2011 for the course HISTORY 165 taught by Professor Freeman during the Summer '11 term at Coastline Community College.

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WH2 Ch.23 - Chapter 23: The Transformation of Europe MARTIN...

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