wh2 ch.28 - Chapter 28: Revolution and National States in...

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Chapter 28: Revolution and National States in the Atlantic World Popular Sovereignty: o The notion that legitimate political authority resides not in kings, but rather in the people who make up a society. o N. America instituted a new gov’t based on this principle o Affected French revolutionaries o John Locke: in Second Treatise of Civil Gov’t People appointed rulers to protect and promote their common interests; rulers who violated those rights were subject to deposition. Rulers derived their power from the consent of those they governed, if the subjects withdrew their consent they could replace the ruler. ancien regim: o “old order” o A term used during the French Revolution that rejected the existing social order and replaced it with new political, social, and cultural structures. Opposite of the American Revolution which kept British social and cultural heritage Estates General: o An assembly that represented the entire French population through groups known as estates o In the ancient regime, there were 3 estates (political classes) 1 st estate: ~ 100 thousand clergy Roman Catholic clergy men 2 nd estate: 400 thousand noble men 3 rd estate: the rest of the population; ~24 million serfs, peasants, and urban residents o Each estate had one vote, no matter the estate size o 1789- King Louis called the Estates General in hopes that it would authorize new taxes. He never controlled the assembly. Reps of the 3 rd estate demanded political and social reform, some clergy and few noble men supported reform, but it was to no avail. National Assembly o 3 rd estate seceded from the Estates General and proclaimed themselves to be the National Assembly o Swore to not disband until a new constitution was written Had much popular support Undertook the broad program of political and social reform The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen o Based off American revolutionary ideas: Equality of all men, declared sovereignty, asserted individual rights of liberty and property.
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The Convention: o A new legislative body elected by universal manhood suffrage which abolished the monarchy and proclaimed France a republic o Rallied the French population by instituting the levee en masse (“mass levy”) that drafted people and resources for use in the war against invading forces
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wh2 ch.28 - Chapter 28: Revolution and National States in...

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