Test Three Material

Test Three Material - Test Three Material 17/11/2010...

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Unformatted text preview: Test Three Material 17/11/2010 14:45:00 PALEOANTHROPOLOGY AND THE FOSSIL RECORD Paleoanthropology-the study of human evolution and the fossil record Hominids-general term for the family Hominid Hominini-general term for the tribe Hominins o a hominine is specific Goal #1identify hominde and homininin species in the fossil record Goal #2-establish their relationship to each other and to modern humans Goal #3-try to gain insight into their behavior Paleoanthropology is multidisciplinary Multidisciplinary Geology archaeology-by identify material means zoo archaeology- specializes in faunal remains from a site Taphonomist-studies what happens to an organism after it dies The big three things the paleoanthropologist look for! These three things did not happen at the same time! Culture o One of the major things that separated humans form apes Brain size o Is something that we look for in the fossil record. o evidence in increased brain size and the changes that go along with it Bipedality-walking on two limbs o Humans are obligated to be bipedality o Skull foramen Magnum A hole in the bottom of the skull the position of the foramen magnum depends on if you are bipedalism, quadrapedalism Skeletal Adaptations for Bipedality o Spinal Curve o humans have an s shape spine to help balance and absorb shock o a quagraped will have a straighter spine o Pelvis shape (ilia) the pelvis in a biped is going to be more rounded and the ilia will be oriented in anterior and posterior (front to back) maner. a quagraped will have a flattened, Ilia will be oriented in an up and down direction o Femur Bicondular angle-positions the bottom of the femur directly underneath the pelvis in a biped in a quadraped it is a straight femur and it is not angled underneath the pelvis o Neck Biped-neck length is going to be longer quadraped would be shorter o Feet o the arch in a biped absorbs shock o the big toe helps with balance and to push off Hypothesis for Bipedality Freeing the Hands o Carrying objects o eating o hunting/gathering o provisioning Better view of open country o you could see predators o locate best feeding site Energy Efficiency o (Patchy Forest) o if you are traveling long distance it is more efficient to do it bipedal o walking bipedal you burn fewer calories Early Fossil Record Lumper Splitter Debate o A lumper would be more inclined to have fewer fossil species tend to recognized similarities o A splitter more inclined to support more species tend to recognize and emphasized the differences Paleoanthropology...
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Test Three Material - Test Three Material 17/11/2010...

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