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Biology 1201-exam 1

Biology 1201-exam 1 - Biology 1201 Definition of...

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Biology 1201 January 18, 2011 Definition of science -The use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated though this process. Science originates in question about the natural world -Observations and evidence -Construct explanations and testable hypothesis -Explanation made public though presentations and publications -Scientists present their explanations and critique the explanations proposed by other scientist Our “typical” experience Body temperature 37 degrees Celsius Range of conditions from -2 degrees Celsius to 132 degrees Celsius Range of conditions for life -Cell/body temperatures -2 to 37 degrees Celsius -Range of pressure: 1 atm to 110 atm -Conditions at the average depth of the ocean 2 to 4 degrees Celsius -380 atm of pressure Organisms confront a variety of problems Antarctic fishes Live (and have body temperatures at -2 degrees (below freezing temperature of most Penguins -Keep warm at similar temperatures (endotherm) Diving seals -hold their breathe for as long as 90 minutes -dive down Deep-sea fishes -Down to 7000 m -High pressure, cold temperature, low food availability Piezophiles Bacteria-(piezophiles) Thermophiles Bacteria-thermophiles exist at high temperatures up to 132 degrees Celsius (grow at 122 degrees Celsius Sharks -Live with ½ molar urea in their tissues _urea is a potent denaturant of proteins
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Halophilic bacteria live in osmotic equilibrium “love” high salt concentration Tuna -Raise the temperature of their muscles above ambient (as much as 15 degrees Celcius) - They are endotherms in contrast to ectothermic fish Gutless Tubeworms Thrive at the Mid-water fish and invertebrates -Organisms living in the water column achieve neutral buoyancy despite the high- density material Chemistry background Elements -Pure substances that cannot be broken down into two or more simpler substances -92 naturally occurring -112 th element copernicium (Cn) -6 others Atoms -basic unit of the element which can be divided Components of an Atom -Nucleus -Proton (1+ charge, 1 Dalton mass) -Neutron (0 charge, 1 Dalton mass) -Electron (-1 charge, essentially without mass) Atomic Number -Number of protons equal to nucleus Atomic Mass -Number (mass) of protons and neutrons in the nucleus Electrical Charge -Number of electrons = number of protons -In an ion, the number of electrons is not equal to the number of protons Compound -Substance in which can be broken down to two or more elements -Composition is define and exact -Energy is involved in the synthesis or breakdown -Burning gasoline -Elements lose their characteristic properties Chemical Bonds -Forces holding atoms together in molecules -characterized as strong or weak depending on the energy required to make/break the bond What determines the number and type of chemical bonds? -Number= valence
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Biology 1201-exam 1 - Biology 1201 Definition of...

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