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Nervous TissueAnatomy and Physiology I
Objectives•Identify the components to the nervous system•Define the terms afferent and efferent•Compare and contrast the CNS and PNS•Describe the functions of the nervous system•Compare and contrast the function of the neuroglia•Identify and describe the function of the anatomical components to a neuron•Compare and contrast grey and white matter•Label neurons accordingly to their function and structure5/15/20202
Nervous System:Overview•Nervous system influences and/or controls every thought, action and emotion•Composed of nerves which are NEURON cells•Neurons communicate with other neurons and different part of the body viaelectrical and chemical signals•The signals are rapid and cause immediate responses•Nervous system is divided into 2 divisions:•Central nervous system•Peripheral nervous system5/15/20203
Nervous System:Divisions•Central Nervous System (CNS)•Brain and spinal cord•Integration center•Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)•Autonomic nervous system is further divided into•Parasympathetic nervous system•Sympathetic nervous system•Afferent (sensory) division•Efferent (motor) division4
Components of the nervous system.
Functional Divisions of the Nervous System5/15/20207Sensory functionsSensory inputAfferent division of PNSIntegration/ ProcessingNeural integrationCNS acts as the controlcenterResponding (Output)Motor outputEfferent division of PNSThese 3 Basic functions overlap:✓Normal and abnormal function of the nervous system corresponds to these threefunctions
Cells in theNervous system1.Neurons(aka nerve cells)2.Neurogliacell•Neuroglia cells protect, support andassist the function of neuron cells•There are 6 different types ofneuroglia cells. (4 in CNS; 2 in PNS)✓Outnumber neurons 10:19
Neuroglia cells1.Astrocytes:•Support/brace neurons and connect themto capillaries to gain nutrients2.Microglial cells:•Act as animmune celland assistdamaged/dying neurons3.Ependymal cells:•Help form theblood-brain barrier4.Oligodendrocytes:•Formmyelin(fatty) sheaths around theaxons of neurons in CNS10
Nerve Tissue:PNSNeuroglia cells5.Satellite cells•Surround cell body of neuron•Assist with connecting PNSneurons to capillaries to gainnutrients6.Schwann cells•Form myelin sheaths aroundaxons in the PNS•Similar in function to theoligodendrocytes5/15/202011
Neurons•Main cell of the nervous system•It is the functional and structural unitof the nervous system•Conduct nerve impulses (akaactionpotentials) from area of the body toanother•Found in the CNS and PNS✓Surrounding neurons are theneuroglia cells (glia cells)12
Nerve Tissue:Neuron•Although Neurons are long and have aunique shape•They consist of a plasma membrane,cytoplasm, organelles and a nucleus