Sociology-2S06-review-1 - Sociology 2S06 review#1 Early soc theory Intellectual forces o The enlightenment thinkers thought traditional

Sociology-2S06-review-1 - Sociology 2S06 review#1...

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Sociology 2S06 review #1 Early soc theory Intellectual forces: o The enlightenment : thinkers thought traditional institutions and values irrational, wanted SOCIAL CHANGE o The conservative reaction to the enlightenment : conservative thinkers emphasised what the enlightenment thinkers saw as irrational. Wanted SOCAIL ORDER, did not like rev. o Impact of enlightenment on conservative reaction on sociology: some forms of sociology related to social change and some to social order French Sociology Claude Henri Saint-Simon: o Conservative theory: preserve society o Radical Theory: need some change o Model sociology off natural sciences. Auguste Comte o Use of “sociology” Wanted to base sociology of natural sciences First to use term “sociology” Social statistics (understanding social structure)... Social dynamics (understanding social change) more important o The Law of three stages Three intellectual stages: Theological stage (religion) prior to 1300 Metaphysical (philosophy) 1300-1800 Positive Stage (science) 1800 o Social Order and Disorder: stems from ideas from previous stages (religion and philo belief), when science is only way of understanding disorder will end Emile Durkheim: Influenced by enlightenment, conservative reaction, and Comte o Influence of enlightenment and Comte: Emphasis on science Wrote “rules of Sociological Method”: find patterns and regularities in society reflected in stats. Look at cause and effect o Influence of Conservative reaction: oriented towards social order, need for social reforms o Early acceptance of Durkheim: 1900-1960’s sociology dominated by Durkheim’s social order.
German Sociology Geog Friedrich Hegel o Dialectic: way of thinking that stresses conflict and contradictions (oppositions) o Idealism: emphasis on ideas and mental process over the material world. Ludwig Feuerbach o Emphasized materialism instead of idealism Karl Marx o Reaction to Hegel : agreed with dialectic but thought it should be applied to material aspects of life as well as ideas o Reaction to Feuerbach : Agreed with materialism but thought needed dialectical approach to material aspects. o Dialectical Materialism : focused on dialectical relationships within the material world. Problems in society stemmed from real material conditions (i.e. capitalism). Solutions must be found in dialectical relationships (capitalists vs workers). Believed workers would revolt and abolish capitalism. o Influence of Political Economy : study political and economic relationship. Labour is the general source of wealth but criticised workers general acceptance of capitalism and the failure to see conflict between capitalists and workers. o Capital : critique of Political economy. Advocated for radical political economy o Early Rejection : ideas rejected because ideology was radical and thinkers did not like this and Marx’s interests were to generate social disorder which was counter to the other thinkers interests.

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