Sociology 2S06 review #1Early soc theoryIntellectual forces: oThe enlightenment: thinkers thought traditional institutions and values irrational, wanted SOCIAL CHANGEoThe conservative reaction to the enlightenment: conservative thinkers emphasised what the enlightenment thinkers saw as irrational. Wanted SOCAIL ORDER, did not like rev.oImpact of enlightenment on conservative reaction on sociology:some forms of sociologyrelated to social change and some to social orderFrench Sociology Claude Henri Saint-Simon: oConservative theory: preserve societyoRadical Theory: need some changeoModel sociology off natural sciences.Auguste Comte oUse of “sociology”Wanted to base sociology of natural sciences First to use term “sociology” Social statistics (understanding social structure)... Social dynamics (understanding social change) more importantoThe Law of three stagesThree intellectual stages:Theological stage (religion) prior to 1300Metaphysical (philosophy) 1300-1800Positive Stage (science) 1800oSocial Order and Disorder: stems from ideas from previous stages (religion and philo belief), when science is only way of understanding disorder will endEmile Durkheim: Influenced by enlightenment, conservative reaction, and ComteoInfluence of enlightenment and Comte: Emphasis on science Wrote “rules of Sociological Method”: find patterns and regularities in society reflected in stats. Look at cause and effect oInfluence of Conservative reaction: oriented towards social order, need for social reformsoEarly acceptance of Durkheim: 1900-1960’s sociology dominated by Durkheim’s social order.
German Sociology Geog Friedrich HegeloDialectic: way of thinking that stresses conflict and contradictions (oppositions)oIdealism: emphasis on ideas and mental process over the material world. Ludwig FeuerbachoEmphasized materialism instead of idealismKarl MarxoReaction to Hegel: agreed with dialectic but thought it should be applied to material aspects of life as well as ideasoReaction to Feuerbach: Agreed with materialism but thought needed dialectical approach to material aspects.oDialectical Materialism: focused on dialectical relationships within the material world. Problems in society stemmed from real material conditions (i.e. capitalism). Solutions must be found in dialectical relationships (capitalists vs workers). Believed workers would revolt and abolish capitalism.oInfluence of Political Economy: study political and economic relationship. Labour is the general source of wealth but criticised workers general acceptance of capitalism and the failure to see conflict between capitalists and workers. oCapital: critique of Political economy. Advocated for radical political economyoEarly Rejection: ideas rejected because ideology was radical and thinkers did not like thisand Marx’s interests were to generate social disorder which was counter to the other thinkers interests.