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Ch.5 - Chapter 5 Motivation at Work Learning Points 1...

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Chapter 5 Motivation at Work Learning Points: 1. Motivation is not something that is “done” to other people. It is an internal state that directs individuals toward certain goals. 2. Individuals are motivated by different needs. Managers sometimes have false assumptions about what motivates their employees. Put people in jobs they will find rewarding and recognize their contributions. 3. Doing a “boring” job well is just as great a contribution to an organization as doing any other job well. I. Motivation : The process of arousing and sustaining goal-directed behavior. P.142 (1) Internal Needs (Intrinsic Reward) : It is related to “psychological” rewards, such as : opportunity to use one’s ability, a sense of challenge and achievement, receiving appreciation and positive recognition. (2) External Incentives (Extrinsic Reward) : It is related to “tangible” rewards, such as : salary and fringe benefits, security, the work environment and promotion. Internal needs and external incentives are some of the factors that motivate people to work hard in an organization. The main concern for manager is to understand what employees’ need (some are for intrinsic; while others are for extrinsic) and reward them accordingly. II. There are Two Major Theories of work motivation : A. Content Theories : Emphasis on what motivates individuals. P.145- 151 1. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs; 2. Alderfer’s ERG theory; 3. McClelland’s Achievement theory; 4. Herzberg’s two-factor theory P.1
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B. Process Theory : emphasis nature of interaction between individual and the environment. P.157-161 1. Adams’s Theory of Inequity 2. Vroom’s Expectancy Theory of Motivation A1. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs : An employee’s behaviour is motivated by several need levels, but Maslow argued that behaviour is motivated by the lowest unsatisfied need at the time.
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