Bio Final Review.pdf - Chapter 1 Scientific Inquiry u25cf...

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Chapter 1: Scientific InquiryObservation - the act of noticing and describing events or processes in acareful, orderly wayInference - a logical interpretation based on that scientists already know-> hypothesis - a scientific explanation for a set of observations that canbe tested in ways that support or reject itIndependent variable - the variable that is deliberately changed(x-axis)Dependent variable - the variable that is observed and changes inresponse to the independent variable(y-axis)Control group - exposed to the same conditions as the experimentalgroup except for one independent variableChapter 2: Properties of WaterWater is neutral(10 protons, 10 electrons)Polarity - uneven distribution of charge in a molecule -> slightlynegative and slightly positive endWater is a polar molecule, so it can form multiple hydrogen bondsWater expands when frozenAs ice, the hydrogen bonds are stableIn water the hydrogen bonds constantly break + reform3 types of matter - solid(most dense), gas, and liquidCarbon CompoundsCan bond with many elements such as hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorus,sulfur, and nitrogenMonomers - smaller units -> polymers - monomers joined togetherCarbohydrates: compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygenatoms(ratio of 1:2:1)Used as main source of energyThe breaking down of sugars(anything endings in -ose), suppliesimmediate energy for cell activitiesMonosaccharides - single sugar molecules(glucose)
Disaccharide - component made by joining two simple sugarstogether(sucrose)Polysaccharides - large macromolecules formed frommonosaccharides(glycogen, starch)Lipids - made up of carbon and hydrogen atoms(chemical structure:glycerol + fatty acid)Used to store energyComponents of hormonesStructural element of cellProvide means where fat-soluble nutrients can be absorbed bybodyProteins - macromolecule that contains nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, andoxygen(made up of amino acids)Peptide bonds link amino acids to form a polypeptideControl the rate of reactions and regulate cell processesForm important cellular structuresTransport substances into or out of cellsHelp fight diseaseNucleic acids - macromolecules containing hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen,carbon, and phosphorus(made up of nucleotides)Store and transmit hereditary or genetic informationTwo kinds DNA and RNAEnzymesEnzymes - speed up chemical reactions that take place in cellsCatalyst - a substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reactionVery specificSubstrate - reactants of enzyme-catalyzed reactionsActive site and substrates fit like a lock and keyTemperature, pH, and regulatory molecules can affect the activity ofenzymesEnzyme takes less energy for the action to get doneNot consumed by reaction - can be reused
Chapter 7: CellsCell - basic unit of lifeCell theory - fundamental concept of biologyAll living things are made up of cellsCells are the basic units of structure and function in living thingsNew cells are produced from existing cells

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