Science Midterm Review.pdf - Chapter 1 Scientific Inquiry...

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Chapter 1: Scientific Inquiry Observation - the act of noticing and describing events or processes in a careful, orderly way Inference - a logical interpretation based on that scientists already know -> hypothesis - a scientific explanation for a set of observations that can be tested in ways that support or reject it Independent variable - the variable that is deliberately changed(x-axis) Dependent variable - the variable that is observed and changes in response to the independent variable(y-axis) Control group - exposed to the same conditions as the experimental group except for one independent variable Chapter 2: Properties of Water Water is neutral(10 protons, 10 electrons) Polarity - uneven distribution of charge in a molecule -> slightly negative and slightly positive end Water is a polar molecule, so it can form multiple hydrogen bonds Water expands when frozen As ice, the hydrogen bonds are stable In water the hydrogen bonds constantly break + reform 3 types of matter - solid(most dense), gas, and liquid Carbon Compounds Can bond with many elements such as hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, sulfur, and nitrogen Monomers - smaller units -> polymers - monomers joined together Carbohydrates: compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms(ratio of 1:2:1) Used as main source of energy The breaking down of sugars(anything endings in -ose), supplies immediate energy for cell activities Monosaccharides - single sugar molecules(glucose) Disaccharide - component made by joining two simple sugars together(sucrose) Polysaccharides - large macromolecules formed from monosaccharides(glycogen, starch) Lipids - made up of carbon and hydrogen atoms(chemical structure: glycerol + fatty acid)
Used to store energy Components of hormones Structural element of cell Provide means where fat-soluble nutrients can be absorbed by body Proteins - macromolecule that contains nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen(made up of amino acids) Peptide bonds link amino acids to form a polypeptide Control the rate of reactions and regulate cell processes Form important cellular structures Transport substances into or out of cells Help fight disease Nucleic acids - macromolecules containing hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, carbon, and phosphorus(made up of nucleotides) Store and transmit hereditary or genetic information Two kinds DNA and RNA Enzymes Enzymes - speed up chemical reactions that take place in cells Catalyst - a substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction Very specific Substrate - reactants of enzyme-catalyzed reactions Active site and substrates fit like a lock and key Temperature, pH, and regulatory molecules can affect the activity of enzymes Enzyme takes less energy for the action to get done Not consumed by reaction - can be reused Chapter 7: Cells Cell - basic unit of life Cell theory - fundamental concept of biology All living things are made up of cells Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things New cells are produced from existing cells

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