Lecture 7

Lecture 7 - The Aufbau (Building Up) Principle 3s < 3p...

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The Aufbau (“Building Up”) Principle 3s < 3p < 3d 4s at Z = 20, Ca (life becomes complex!)
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Covalent Bonding A covalent bond is one in which the atoms are held together by a shared electron pair . + + e e In essence, a pair of electrons that concentrate in the internuclear region provide the glue that holds together the two positively charged nuclei that would otherwise repel each other. e.g. H 2
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FIGURE 13.1: (a) Interaction of H Atoms (b) Energy Profile
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Molecular Orbital Theory Like atomic orbitals, molecular orbitals are mathematical functions that can be used to indicate the probability of finding an electron at a given position. Also like an atomic orbital, a molecular orbital can only accommodate a maximum of two electrons , in which case they must have opposite spin .
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The Aufbau Principle: Construction of the Periodic Table Filling the 2p subshell produces another stable configuration of electrons which serves as the core shell of the third row: symbol [Ne]
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Molecular Orbitals of H 2 Molecular orbitals are derived by a superimposition of the atomic orbitals belonging to the valence shells of all atoms, as illustrated by H 2 . As two atoms approach each other, the orbitals overlap and interfere either constructively (addition) or destructively (subtraction). Note that color is often used to indicate phase (+/–). subtraction 1s A – 1s B 1s A 1s B The derived orbitals are called a linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO). addition 1s A + 1s B
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Molecular Orbitals of H 2 The result of constructive interference (addition) is a molecular orbital that has an increased probability of finding the electron between the nuclei and is called a bonding orbital . The bonding orbital is
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This note was uploaded on 11/03/2011 for the course MATH 1090 taught by Professor Greenwood during the Spring '08 term at MIT.

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Lecture 7 - The Aufbau (Building Up) Principle 3s &lt; 3p...

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