Lecture 11

Lecture 11 - Reading assignment chapter 6 Equilibrium From...

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Reading assignment: chapter 6 “Equilibrium” From Last Class P t = n t RT/V tot tot P tot = P 1 + P 2 = (n 1 + n 2 )(RT/V) P 1 = χ 1 * P tot =+ 2 ) PV E 3 E RT Temperature is a measure of kinetic energy of molecular motion PV T , () 3 avg mole KE n =⋅ , 2 avg mol KE = RT n = E depends only on T but u depends on T and M 1 KE depends only on T, but u depends on T and M 3 3 1.36 10 / rms RT um s M == × u rms , O 2 at 298K = 4.82 x 10 2 m/s
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• Blackboard demonstration 2
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/2 Maxwell Boltzmann Distribution and Temperature 2 3/2 2/ 2 2 () 4 2 B mu k T B m fu ue kT π ⎛⎞ = ⎜⎟ ⎝⎠ -mu 2 /2k B T 2 2 / 2 ) u k T 2 2 2 () B mu k T fu ue -mu 2 /2k B T -mu 2 /2k B T / B mu k f = 2 f uu = velocity 3 As T , width increases (exponential term) and because all particles must be represented (integration under curve gives same value), once u mp shifts to higher u , the curve must also flatten Blackboard demonstration
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Effusion and Diffusion Simplest experiments demonstrating velocities of particles in a gas: effusion and diffusion Effusion: passage of gas through a small hole into an evacuated chamber Graham’s observation: Rate of effusion inversely proportional to the quare root of the molecular weight square root of the molecular weight of the gas particles Graham’s law of effusion 2 1 rate of effusion gas 1 rate of effusion gas 2 M M = Check consistency with kinetic molecular theory 12 gas 1 8/ rate of effusion gas 1 te of effusion gas 2 gas 2 / avg u R TM M T M M π == = 4 21 rate of effusion gas 2 avg u RT
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Diffusion: Mixing of gases ) () H HCl NH Cl 34 NH g HCl g NH Cl s +→ 33 NH , d 36.5 5 avg NH HCl u M = = = 5 3 HCl , 1.5 d 17 avg HCl NH u M ==
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Collision of Gas Particles and Container Walls Pressure of Gas on Walls Æ Kinetic Molecular Theory But what are the details? How many particles collide per second with a given wall area?
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This note was uploaded on 11/03/2011 for the course MATH 1090 taught by Professor Greenwood during the Spring '08 term at MIT.

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Lecture 11 - Reading assignment chapter 6 Equilibrium From...

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