Chapters 9 and 10: ThermodynamicsThdithift itifThermodynamics: the conversion of energy amongst its various forms(mechanical, chemical, electrical, etc.) and the relation of these conversions to macroscopic variables (i.e. temperature, pressure, and volume) .Sadi CarnotJosiah W. Gibbs1796-18321839-1903“Reflections on the motive power of heat,” 18241Thermochemistry: study of the energy evolved or absorbed in chemical reactions and in physical transformations, such asmelting or boiling.
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Energy: the capacity to do work or to produce heatEngineeringBiologyThe Laws of Thermodynamics apply to all of nature:More efficient steam enginesDevelopment of new enginesMaximum efficiency of solar lld b ttiBiochemical reactionsBiomolecular structuresPhysicscells and batteriesChemistryPhase transitionsBlack holesChemical reactions2 NaClO32 NaCl + 3O22C12H22O11+ 3O29 C + 3 CO2+ H2O