Lecture 14

Lecture 14 - Chapters 9 and 10: Thermodynamics...

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Chapters 9 and 10: Thermodynamics Thermodynamics: the conversion of energy amongst its various forms (mechanical, chemical, electrical, etc.) and the relation of these conversions to macroscopic variables (i.e. temperature, pressure, and volume) . Sadi Carnot Josiah W. Gibbs 1796-1832 1839-1903 “Reflections on the motive power of heat,” 1824 1 Thermochemistry: study of the energy evolved or absorbed in chemical reactions and in physical transformations, such as melting or boiling.
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Energy: the capacity to do work or to produce heat ngineering Biology The Laws of Thermodynamics apply to all of nature: Engineering More efficient steam engines Development of new engines Maximum efficiency of solar o ogy Biochemical reactions Biomolecular structures hysics cells and batteries Chemistry Phase transitions Physics Black holes Chemical reactions 2 NaClO 2 NaCl + 3O 2 3 2 C 12 H 22 O 11 + 3O 2 9 C + 3 CO 2 + H 2 O + 5635 kJ
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Definitions Temperature: a property that reflects the random motions of particles in a particular substance Heat: transfer of (disorganized) energy between two objects due to a temperature difference 3 Energy has been transferred through heat Heat is not a property of a substance by itself
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Definitions Work: a type of (organized) energy transfer, integral of force acting over a distance. Raising Ball B requires work. Raising the riders requires work. Work is done on Ball B by Ball A. Some of the potential energy of all A has been transferred to Ball Work is done on the riders. In this case it is mechanical work. 4 Ball A has been transferred to Ball B through work.
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Definitions Thus, energy can be transferred in two ways as a system undergoes a process: eat Heat Work 5
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Definitions Pathway: the way or route of a process. On this pathway energy transfer is divided between heat and work. Process: Ball A rolls down the hill One specific pathway with little friction: smooth hill= little frictional heating mooth hill smooth hill = smooth hill = Ball A slows slightly 6 large amount of work done on Ball B
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Definitions Another pathway for ball A rolling down the hill, with high friction. A different division of energy transfer between heat and work occurs on this pathwa rough hill= more frictional heating ugh hill rough hill= rough hill = Ball A slows down 7 little work done on Ball B
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Definitions
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This note was uploaded on 11/03/2011 for the course MATH 1090 taught by Professor Greenwood during the Spring '08 term at MIT.

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Lecture 14 - Chapters 9 and 10: Thermodynamics...

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