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Lecture 14 - Chapters 9 and 10 Thermodynamics...

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Chapters 9 and 10: Thermodynamics Th d i th i f t it i f Thermodynamics: the conversion of energy amongst its various forms (mechanical, chemical, electrical, etc.) and the relation of these conversions to macroscopic variables (i.e. temperature, pressure, and volume) . Sadi Carnot Josiah W. Gibbs 1796-1832 1839-1903 “Reflections on the motive power of heat,” 1824 1 Thermochemistry: study of the energy evolved or absorbed in chemical reactions and in physical transformations, such as melting or boiling.
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Energy: the capacity to do work or to produce heat Engineering Biology The Laws of Thermodynamics apply to all of nature: More efficient steam engines Development of new engines Maximum efficiency of solar ll d b tt i Biochemical reactions Biomolecular structures Physics cells and batteries Chemistry Phase transitions Black holes Chemical reactions 2 NaClO 3 2 NaCl + 3O 2 2 C 12 H 22 O 11 + 3O 2 9 C + 3 CO 2 + H 2 O
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