genetics - 1 Genetics Mendelian Genetics Gregor Johann...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 Genetics Mendelian Genetics Gregor Johann Mendel The Father of Modern Genetics An Austrian Monk and Scientist. In the mid 1800s Mendel conducted a series of experiments on pea plants that established the foundations for what we know about genetics today. Mendels work was largely ignored in favor of other theories until the early 1900s. 1) Traits are inherited in pairs of discrete units which he called factors (now called genes). 2) These Factors are inherited independently of one another and dominant factors can mask the expression of recessive factors. Mendels work was done almost 100 years before the discovery of DNA. What Mendel Discovered Meiosis Review Meiosis Review 2 DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid: the hereditary (genetic) material that contains the information to direct cell reproduction, inheritance, and other processes. DNA is organized into functional units called genes and genes are organized into chromosomes. Homologous Chromosomes: during meiosis, chromosomes are organized into homologous pairs. Members of a pair have an identical sequence of genes . Gene: The functional unit of heredity. Allele: Those genes which occupy the same position on each member of a homologous pair are called alleles. The two alleles can be identical or alternative forms of the same gene. Homozygous: Having two identical alleles for a gene. Heterozygous: Having two different alleles for a gene. Dominant: When two different alleles are present, one allele is expressed in the phenotype and the other is suppressed. The expressed allele is said to be dominant over the suppressed (recessive) allele....
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genetics - 1 Genetics Mendelian Genetics Gregor Johann...

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