6_Biological_Molecules

6_Biological_Molecules - V V V I I I B B B i i i o o o l l...

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Unformatted text preview: V V V I I I . . . B B B i i i o o o l l l o o o g g g i i i c c c a a a l l l M M M o o o l l l e e e c c c u u u l l l e e e s s s ¾ ¾ ¾ C C C a a a r r r b b b o o o n n n s s s k k k e e e l l l e e e t t t o o o n n n s s s ¡ Carbon has four unpaired electrons which can participate in four covalent bonds. 1 2 4 3 ¡ The geometric arrangement of these bonds is tetrahedral. ¡ Such a bond arrangement is ideal for the formation of chains - carbon is the ultimate LEGO® block. ¡ All biological molecules are made of carbon chains. ¾ ¾ ¾ P P P o o o l l l y y y m m m o o o r r r p p p h h h i i i s s s m m m o o o f f f c c c a a a r r r b b b o o o n n n c c c h h h a a a i i i n n n s s s ¡ Carbon chains can take many forms depending on: ¡ (i) which of the four possible carbon bonds are utilized for carbon-to-carbon linkages (geometry); ¡ (ii) how many electron pairs are shared (bond multiplicity); ¡ (iii) presence of functional groups and ¡ (iv) functional group arrangement (isomerism). C C C h h h a a a i i i n n n g g g e e e o o o m m m e e e t t t r r r y y y ¢ ¢ ¢ “ “ “ S S S t t t r r r a a a i i i g g g h h h t t t ” ” ” c c c h h h...
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6_Biological_Molecules - V V V I I I B B B i i i o o o l l...

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